The Comprehensive Latex Symbol List

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The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.org>� 22 September 2005 Abstract This document lists 3300 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX2" system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/). Contents 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Body-text symbols 8 Table 1: LATEX2" Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 2: Predefined LATEX2" Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 3: LATEX2" Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 13: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 14: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 15: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 16: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 17: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 18: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 19: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 20: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 21: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 22: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 23: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 24: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 25: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 26: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 27: wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 �The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 7.6 on page 82 for more information about who did what. 1 Table 28: textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 29: textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 30: marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 31: wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 32: eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 33: textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 34: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 35: textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Table 36: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Table 37: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 Mathematical symbols 20 Table 38: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 39: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 40: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 41: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 42: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 43: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 44: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 45: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 46: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 47: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 48: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 49: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 50: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 51: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 52: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table 53: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 54: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 55: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 56: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 57: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 58: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 59: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 60: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 61: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 62: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 63: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 64: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 65: Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 66: AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 67: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 68: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 69: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 70: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 71: Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 72: AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 73: wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 74: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 75: mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 76: AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 77: stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 78: mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 79: Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2 Table 80: Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table 81: textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table 82: AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table 83: AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table 84: AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 85: stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 86: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 87: mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 88: mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 89: mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 90: chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 91: ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 92: Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 93: stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 94: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 95: mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 96: Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 97: AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 98: Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 99: AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 100: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 101: upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 102: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 103: AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 104: Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 105: AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 106: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 107: mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 108: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 109: AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 110: stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 111: mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 112: nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 113: Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 114: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 115: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 116: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 117: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 118: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 119: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 120: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 121: metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 122: Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 123: AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table 124: yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 125: trfsigns Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 126: Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 127: overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 128: yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 129: AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 130: empheq Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 131: chemarr Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 132: chemarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Table 133: mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 Table 134: esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Table 135: undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 136: extarrows Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 137: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 138: Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 139: AMS Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 140: mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 141: yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 142: mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 143: mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 144: marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 145: Miscellaneous LATEX2" Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 146: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 147: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 148: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 149: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 150: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Table 151: Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4 Science and technology symbols 49 Table 152: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 153: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 154: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 155: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 156: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 157: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 158: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 159: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 160: wasysym Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 161: marvosym Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 162: mathabx Astrological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 163: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 164: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 165: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 166: ascii Control Characters (IBM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 167: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 168: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 169: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 170: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 171: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5 Dingbats 53 Table 172: bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 173: pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 174: marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 175: bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 176: pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 177: dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 178: bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 179: pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 180: dingbat Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 181: bbding Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 182: pifont Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 183: bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4 Table 184: pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 185: bbding Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 186: pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 187: wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 188: pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 189: wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 190: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table 191: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table 192: wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table 193: ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 194: bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 195: pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 196: universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 197: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 198: skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 199: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 200: marvosym Information Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 201: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 202: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table 203: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6 Other symbols 60 Table 204: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 205: wasysym General Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 206: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 207: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 208: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 209: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 210: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 211: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 212: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 213: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 214: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 215: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 216: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 217: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 218: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 219: skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 220: metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 221: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 222: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table 223: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table 224: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Table 225: dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7 Additional Information 67 7.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7.2 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7.3 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 7.4 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 7.5 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 7.6 About this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 7.7 Copyright and license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5 References 83 Index 86 6 1 Introduction Welcome to the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of LATEX symbol information: font samples, LATEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria: 1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org). 2. All of their symbols have LATEX2" bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \charhnumber i. These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List contains samples of 3300 symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX2" system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages. 1.1 Document Usage Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the corresponding LATEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 35, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the default font encoding for LATEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[hencodingi]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where hencodingi is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{hencodingi}\selectfont”. Section 7 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, explains how symbols are spaced in math mode, presents a LATEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, and provides some information about this document itself. The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms. 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in “Spaces are significant.” . . . . . . . . . 8 ´ı, `ı, ¯ı, ˆı, etc. (versus ´i, `i, ¯i, and ˆi) . . . . . . . . . 13 ¢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ©, ®, and ™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ‰ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 B and F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . and & . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 °, as in “180°” or “15‰” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 L, F, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 N, Z, R, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 −R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ´¯a, `ˆe, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) 72 <, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) . . . . . . . 80 ˆ and ˜ (or �) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 7 2 Body-text symbols This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents, ligatures, and currency symbols. Table 1: LATEX2" Escapable “Special” Characters $ \$ % \% \_ � } \} & \& # \# { \{ � The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i.e., it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character). Table 2: Predefined LATEX2" Text-mode Commands ˆ \textasciicircum < \textless ˜ \textasciitilde a ª \textordfeminine

  • \textasteriskcentered o º \textordmasculine

\ \textbackslash ¶ \textparagraph� | \textbar · \textperiodcentered { \textbraceleft� ¿ \textquestiondown } \textbraceright� “ \textquotedblleft • \textbullet ” \textquotedblright c

© \textcopyright� ‘ \textquoteleft † \textdagger� ’ \textquoteright ‡ \textdaggerdbl� r

® \textregistered

$ \textdollar� § \textsection� . . . \textellipsis� £ \textsterling� — \textemdash TM ™ \texttrademark – \textendash \textunderscore� ¡ \textexclamdown \textvisiblespace > \textgreater Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX2" provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. � It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 3: LATEX2" Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode $ \$ \_ ‡ \ddag { \{ ¶ \P c

© \copyright . . . \dots } \}

§ \S † \dag £ \pounds Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX2" provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. 8 Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode X \checkmark r \circledR m \maltese Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) °a \aa Ð \DH� L \L ø \o ß \ss °A \AA ð \dh� l \l Ø \O SS \SS Æ \AE Ð \DJ�  \NG� OE \OE Þ \TH� æ \ae ž \dj� ­ \ng� oe \oe þ \th� � Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages Ð \B{D} ° \m{c} ¤ \m{f} ¨ \m{k} » \M{t} – \m{Z} ž \B{d}  \m{D} „ \m{F}  \m{N} › \M{T}  \T{E} ‡ \B{H} ð \M{d} † \m{G} ­ \m{n} º \m{t} â \T{e} § \B{h} Ð \M{D} ¦ \m{g} ª \m{o} š \m{T} Å \T{O} · \B{t} ¡ \m{d} À \m{I} Š \m{O} ® \m{u}� å \T{o} — \B{T} ‚ \m{E} à \m{i} ‘ \m{P} Ž \m{U}� \m{b} ¢ \m{e} ‰ \m{J} ± \m{p}  \m{Y} € \m{B} ƒ \M{E} © \m{j} ¬ \m{s} ¯ \m{y}  \m{C} £ \M{e} ˆ \m{K} Œ \m{S} ¶ \m{z} These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package. � \m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}. Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese Ì \OHORN ì \ohorn × \UHORN ÷ \uhorn These characters all need the T5 font encoding, which is provided by the vntex package. Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « \guillemotleft ‹ \guilsinglleft „ \quotedblbase " \textquotedbl » \guillemotright › \guilsinglright ‚ \quotesinglbase To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. 9 Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks { \ding{123} } \ding{125} ¡ \ding{161} £ \ding{163} | \ding{124} ~ \ding{126} ¢ \ding{162} Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols È \textbabygamma P \textglotstop ï \textrtailn b \textbarb ; \texthalflength ó \textrtailr c \textbarc z \texthardsign ù \textrtails d \textbard # \texthooktop ú \textrtailt é \textbardotlessj á \texthtb ü \textrtailz g \textbarg ê \texthtbardotlessj $ \textrthook Ü \textbarglotstop Á \texthtc À \textsca 1 \textbari â \texthtd à \textscb ł \textbarl ä \texthtg d \textsce 8 \textbaro H \texthth å \textscg Ý \textbarrevglotstop Ê \texththeng Ë \textsch 0 \textbaru Î \texthtk @ \textschwa ì \textbeltl Ò \texthtp I \textsci B \textbeta Ó \texthtq l \textscj ò \textbullseye c \texthtrtaild Ï \textscl \textceltpal É \texthtscg ð \textscn X \textchi Ö \texthtt OE \textscoelig Å \textcloseepsilon ß \texthvlig s \textscomega Ñ \textcloseomega Û \textinvglotstop ö \textscr Æ \textcloserevepsilon K \textinvscr A \textscripta Þ \textcommatailz Ì \textiota g \textscriptg ^ \textcorner n \textlambda V \textscriptv a \textcrb : \textlengthmark Ú \textscu a \textcrd s \textlhookt Y \textscy g \textcrg e \textlhtlongi ? \textsecstress è \textcrh u \textlhtlongy ž \textsoftsign Û \textcrinvglotstop Ô \textlonglegr  \textstretchc n \textcrlambda ¡ \textlptr tC \texttctclig 2 \textcrtwo M \textltailm Ù \textteshlig C \textctc ñ \textltailn T \texttheta c \textctd ë \textltilde þ \textthorn cý \textctdctzlig Ð \textlyoghlig £ \texttoneletterstem š \textctesh Í \textObardotlessj t \texttslig J \textctj ­ \textOlyoghlig 5 \textturna o \textctn r \textomega r \textturncelig t \textctt _ \textopencorner 4 \textturnh tC \textcttctclig O \textopeno l \textturnk ÿ \textctyogh % \textpalhook Õ \textturnlonglegr ý \textctz F \textphi W \textturnm (continued on next page) 10 (continued from previous page) dý \textdctzlig | \textpipe î \textturnmrleg S \textdoublebaresh " \textprimstress ô \textturnr } \textdoublebarpipe ¼ \textraiseglotstop õ \textturnrrtail =/ \textdoublebarslash g \textraisevibyi 6 \textturnscripta { \textdoublepipe 7 \textramshorns Ø \textturnt S \textdoublevertline \ \textrevapostrophe 2 \textturnv T \textdownstep 9 \textreve û \textturnw à \textdyoghlig 3 \textrevepsilon L \textturny dz \textdzlig Q \textrevglotstop U \textupsilon E \textepsilon z \textrevyogh T \textupstep S \textesh Ç \textrhookrevepsilon Š \textvertline R \textfishhookr Ä \textrhookschwa g \textvibyi e \textg ~ \textrhoticity u \textvibyy G \textgamma ¿ \textrptr ß \textwynn U \textglobfall ã \textrtaild Z \textyogh U \textglobrise í \textrtaill tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information. Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols " \textaolig 3 \texthtbardotlessjvar ´ \textrthooklong B \textbenttailyogh ; \textinvomega q \textscaolig . \textbktailgamma p \textinvsca r \textscdelta D \textctinvglotstop ! \textinvscripta s \textscf 2 \textctjvar I \textlfishhookrlig t \textsck % \textctstretchc # \textlhookfour w \textscm & \textctstretchcvar < \textlhookp x \textscp @ \textctturnt 1 \textlhti y \textscq ) \textdblig > \textlooptoprevesh ˝ \textspleftarrow H \textdoublebarpipevar 6 \textnrleg $ \textstretchcvar G \textdoublepipevar 9 \textObullseye ˙ \textsubdoublearrow ˇ \textdownfullarrow ˆ \textpalhooklong ¯ \textsubrightarrow 7 \textfemale ˜ \textpalhookvar P \textthornvari 5 \textfrbarn F \textpipevar Q \textthornvarii ’ \textfrhookd = \textqplig R \textthornvariii ( \textfrhookdvar ¨ \textrectangle S \textthornvariv ? \textfrhookt ° \textretractingvar E \textturnglotstop - \textfrtailgamma v \textrevscl u \textturnsck T \textglotstopvari z \textrevscr { \textturnscu U \textglotstopvarii \textrhooka C \textturnthree V \textglotstopvariii * \textrhooke A \textturntwo , \textgrgamma + \textrhookepsilon 8 \textuncrfemale 0 \textheng : \textrhookopeno ˘ \textupfullarrow 4 \texthmlig / \textrtailhth 11 Table 13: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols ! \babygamma 8 \eng 4 \labdentalnas � \schwa � \barb � \er / \latfric * \sci � \bard M \esh 6 \legm : \scn ' \bari � \eth E \legr J \scr . \barl D \flapr 1 \lz � \scripta < \baro b \glotstop � \nialpha � \scriptg A \barp � \hookb \nibeta Y \scriptv + \barsci � \hookd [ \nichi W \scu X \barscu � \hookg � \niepsilon ] \scy T \baru $ \hookh � \nigamma � \slashb ; \clickb % \hookheng ) \niiota

\slashc � \clickc � \hookrevepsilon 2 \nilambda � \slashd R \clickt " \hv > \niomega U \slashu ? \closedniomega 􀀀 \inva C \niphi � \taild � \closedrevepsilon , \invf O \nisigma H \tailinvr � \crossb d \invglotstop S \nitheta 0 \taill 
\crossd & \invh V \niupsilon 9 \tailn # \crossh I \invlegr 7 \nj F \tailr 3 \crossnilambda 5 \invm @ \oo L \tails � \curlyc G \invr = \openo P \tailt N \curlyesh K \invscr � \reve _ \tailz a \curlyyogh � \invscripta f \reveject Q \tesh ^ \curlyz � \invv � \revepsilon B \thorn ( \dlbari Z \invw c \revglotstop - \tildel � \dz \ \invy � \scd ' \yogh e \ejective \ipagamma � \scg

Table 14: wasysym Phonetic Symbols

D \DH k \dh l \openo

Þ \Thorn U \inve þ \thorn Table 15: phonetic Phonetic Symbols j \barj f \flap i¯ \ibar A \rotvara i \vari � \barlambda ? \glottal c \openo w \rotw � \varomega M \emgma B \hausaB ¯h \planck y \roty C \varopeno n \engma b \hausab U \pwedge e \schwa v° \vod N \enya D \hausad � \revD p \thorn h \voicedh " \epsi T \hausaD 􀀀 \riota u \ubar x \yogh s \esh k \hausak m \rotm u \udesc d \eth K \hausaK

\rotOmega a \vara F \fj D \hookd r \rotr G \varg

12 Table 16: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols ž \textcrd ¡ \texthtd | \textpipe § \textcrh ¨ \texthtk ð \textrtaild ¢ \textepsilon ± \texthtp » \textrtailt ¬ \textesh º \texthtt ¡ \textschwa  \textfjlig à \textiota ¬ \textscriptv \texthtb © \textltailn œ \textteshlig ° \texthtc ª \textopeno ¶ \textyogh The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 9) but using the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 10. Table 17: semtrans Transliteration Symbols - \Alif , \Ayn Table 18: Text-mode Accents ¨A¨a \"{A}\"{a} `A`\‘{A}\‘{a} A. a. \d{A}\d{a} °A°a \r{A}\r{a} ´A´a \’{A}\’{a} ¿Aa \|{A}\|{a}‡ ŸAa \G{A}\G{a}‡ �A �a \t{A}\t{a} ˙A ˙a \.{A}\.{a} ˜A˜a \~{A}\~{a} ƒ£ \h{A}\h{a}§ ˘˘\u{A}\u{a} ¯A¯a \={A}\={a} A ¯ a¯ \b{A}\b{a} ˝A˝a \H{A}\H{a} ¼Aa \U{A}\U{a}‡ ˆAˆa \^{A}\^{a} A¸ ¸a \c{A}\c{a} Aa \k{A}\k{a}† ˇAˇa \v{A}\v{a} �A �a \newtie{A}\newtie{a}� A

a

\textcircled{A}\textcircled{a} � Requires the textcomp package. † Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. ‡ Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package. § Requires the T5 font encoding, provided by the vntex package. Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz., “ı” and “�”). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “na\"{\i}ve” produces a correct “na¨ıve”, while “na\"{i}ve” would yield the rather odd-looking “na¨ive”. (“na\"{i}ve” does work in encodings other than OT1, however.) 13 Table 19: tipa Text-mode Accents ´¯A´¯a \textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} ´ˇA´ˇa \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} Affi affi \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} A< a< \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} ˘¯A˘¯a \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} ZAZa \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} ˆ˙ Aˆ˙a \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} §A§a \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} ˙˘ A˙˘a \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} ˙˘ A˙˘a \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} ‚A‚a \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} IAIa \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} ŽAŽa \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} žAža \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} `¯A`¯a \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a} ZAZa \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} A„ a„ \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} Afl afl \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} ŸAŸa \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} ‰A‰a \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a} — A —a \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} A˛ a˛ \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} Afi afi \textraising{A}\textraising{a} Affl affl \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} °¯A°¯a \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} “A“a \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} A� a� \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} A› a› \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a} A“ a“ \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} A¯ a¯ \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} A” a” \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} Aˆ aˆ \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a} A˙a˙\ textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} A‹ a‹ \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} A– a– \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} Aff aff \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} A» a» \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} (continued on next page) 14 (continued from previous page) A° a° \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} A« a« \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} A˜ a˜ \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} A¨ a¨ \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} A— a— \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} Aˇ aˇ \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} A& a& \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} A" a" \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} ˜˙ A˜˙a \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} >A >a \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} œAœa \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation for more information. Table 20: extraipa Text-mode Accents ”A” ”a” \bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} –A°» –°a» \partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a} R˜ AR˜a \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} A¯ a¯ \sliding{A}\sliding{a} ..˜A..˜a \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a} A˙ a˙ \spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a} ˜˜ A˜˜a \doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a} A^ a^ \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a} Aˇ» aˇ» \finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a} A ¯¯ a¯¯ \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a} A°» °a» \finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} A "" a "" \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a} A–ˇ a –ˇ \inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} A¡ a¡ \sublptr{A}\sublptr{a} A–° a –° \inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} A ¿ a¿ \subrptr{A}\subrptr{a} ” A ”a \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a} AT aT \whistle{A}\whistle{a} –Aˇ» –aˇ» \partvoice{A}\partvoice{a} Table 21: wsuipa Text-mode Accents Agag \dental{A}\dental{a} A? a\underarch{A}\underarch{a} 15 Table 22: phonetic Text-mode Accents A{ a\hill{A}\hill{a} Aa \rc{A}\rc{a} A ˜ a˜ \ut{A}\ut{a} A° a° A{ a\\oodh{iAl}l\{oAd}{\ao}hill{a} AA...aa. \\stdyl{A{A}\}\tdsy{al{}a} The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents. \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents; for example, \acbar{\’}{a} produces “´¯a” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨¯e”. \labvel joins two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} ! “_mn”. \upbar is intended to go between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ ! “x y”. Lastly, \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font. Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ ! “ph” with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ ! “ph”. Table 23: metre Text-mode Accents A´ a´ \acutus{A}\acutus{a} A˘ a˘ \breve{A}\breve{a} A˜ a˜ \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a} A¨ a¨ \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a} A` a` \gravis{A}\gravis{a} A¯ a¯ \macron{A}\macron{a} Table 24: t4phonet Text-mode Accents ŸAa \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} ¿Aa \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} ¼Aa \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 18 on page 13) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 19 on page 14. Table 25: arcs Text-mode Accents A_ a_ \overarc{A}\overarc{a} A^ a^ \underarc{A}\underarc{a} The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide. An optional macro argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. See the arcs documentation for more information. 16 Table 26: semtrans Accents A¨ a¨ \D{A}\D{a} A ˘ a˘ \U{A}\U{a} A a \T{A}\T{a}� \T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command. Table 27: wsuipa Diacritics s \ain v \leftp x \overring h \stress } \underwedge k \corner n \leftt ~ \polishhook j \syllabic t \upp u \downp q \length w \rightp r \underdots l \upt m \downt { \midtilde o \rightt y \underring p \halflength z \open i \secstress | \undertilde The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a] produces “xa ”, and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “ra”. See the wsuipa documentation for more information. Table 28: textcomp Diacritics ‚ \textacutedbl  \textasciicaron ¯ \textasciimacron ´ \textasciiacute ¨ \textasciidieresis ƒ \textgravedbl € \textasciibreve ` \textasciigrave The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. Table 29: textcomp Currency Symbols š \textbaht $ \textdollar�  \textguarani Ž \textwon ¢ \textcent $ \textdollaroldstyle ’ \textlira ¥ \textyen ¢ \textcentoldstyle – \textdong  \textnaira  \textcolonmonetary € \texteuro ‘ \textpeso ¤ \textcurrency ƒ \textflorin £ \textsterling� � It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. 17 Table 30: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢ \Denarius e \EUR D \EURdig e \EURtm £ \Pfund  \Ecommerce d \EURcr c \EURhv ¦ \EyesDollar ¡ \Shilling The different euro signs are meant to be compatible with different fonts—Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times (\EURtm), and the marvosym digits listed in Table 144 (\EURdig). Table 31: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢ \cent ¤ \currency Table 32: eurosym Euro Signs AC \geneuro BC \geneuronarrow CC \geneurowide e \officialeuro \euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default, \officialeuro— based on a eurosym package option. See the eurosym documentation for more information. The \geneuro. . . characters are generated from the current body font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown. Table 33: textcomp Legal Symbols ­ \textcircledP c

© \textcopyright Ÿ \textservicemark

« \textcopyleft r

® \textregistered TM ™ \texttrademark

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX2" provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solutions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.g., getting a “r ” when you expected to get a “®”). Table 34: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons CC

\cc BY: 
\ccby $ \
\ccnc� = 
\ccnd C
\ccsa�

� These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers. 18 Table 35: textcomp Old-style Numerals 0 \textzerooldstyle 4 \textfouroldstyle 8 \texteightoldstyle 1 \textoneoldstyle 5 \textfiveoldstyle 9 \textnineoldstyle 2 \texttwooldstyle 6 \textsixoldstyle 3 \textthreeoldstyle 7 \textsevenoldstyle Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number. Table 36: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols

  • \textasteriskcentered a ª \textordfeminine

† \textbardbl o º \textordmasculine O \textbigcircle ¶ \textparagraph�

 \textblank · \textperiodcentered

¦ \textbrokenbar ˜ \textpertenthousand • \textbullet ‰ \textperthousand † \textdagger� ™ \textpilcrow ‡ \textdaggerdbl� ' \textquotesingle - \textdblhyphen

\textquotestraightbase

? \textdblhyphenchar � \textquotestraightdblbase œ \textdiscount “ \textrecipe  \textestimated ¸ \textreferencemark ” \textinterrobang § \textsection� • \textinterrobangdown � \textthreequartersemdash n \textmusicalnote ~ \texttildelow › \textnumero � \texttwelveudash ž \textopenbullet Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX2" provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. � It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 37: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols h \permil 19 3 Mathematical symbols Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., “L” and “š”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 151 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform, number set, or some other alphanumeric. Although there have been many requests on comp.text.tex for a contradiction symbol, the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof, including “ ” (\blitza), “)(” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow), “?” (\bot), “=” (\nleftrightarrow), and “¸” (\textreferencemark). Because of the lack of notational consensus, it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a symbol for this purpose. Similarly, discussions on comp.text.tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. Common candidates include “,” (\triangleq), “�” (\equiv), “B” (\coloneqq), and “def =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). See also the example of \equalsfill on page 74. Finally, the average value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}), by some people as “hxi” (\langle x \rangle), and by some people as “�x” or “?x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). The moral of the story is that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers. Table 38: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols $ \mathdollar ¶ \mathparagraph £ \mathsterling . . . \mathellipsis § \mathsection \mathunderscore It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 39: Binary Operators q \amalg [ \cup � \oplus × \times � \ast † \dagger � \oslash / \triangleleft

\bigcirc ‡ \ddagger 
\otimes . \triangleright

5 \bigtriangledown � \diamond ± \pm E \unlhd� 4 \bigtriangleup ÷ \div B \rhd� D \unrhd� • \bullet C \lhd� \ \setminus ] \uplus \ \cap � \mp u \sqcap _ \vee · \cdot � \odot t \sqcup ^ \wedge � \circ \ominus ? \star o \wr � Not predefined in LATEX2". Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. 20 Table 40: AMS Binary Operators Z \barwedge } \circledcirc | \intercal 􀀀 \boxdot ? \circleddash h \leftthreetimes � \boxminus d \Cup n \ltimes � \boxplus g \curlyvee i \rightthreetimes � \boxtimes f \curlywedge o \rtimes e \Cap > \divideontimes r \smallsetminus � \centerdot u \dotplus Y \veebar ~ \circledast [ \doublebarwedge Table 41: stmaryrd Binary Operators � \baro 9 \interleave � \varoast

\bbslash 2 \leftslice � \varobar

N \binampersand ! \merge � \varobslash O \bindnasrepma

\minuso � \varocircle

i \boxast � \moo � \varodot k \boxbar ` \nplus 5 \varogreaterthan � \boxbox : \obar 4 \varolessthan j \boxbslash @ \oblong � \varominus � \boxcircle ; \obslash � \varoplus 􀀀 \boxdot = \ogreaterthan � \varoslash � \boxempty < \olessthan � \varotimes l \boxslash > \ovee 6 \varovee . \curlyveedownarrow ? \owedge 7 \varowedge / \curlyveeuparrow 3 \rightslice " \vartimes ' \curlywedgedownarrow s \sslash � \Ydown & \curlywedgeuparrow 8 \talloblong � \Yleft ) \fatbslash , \varbigcirc � \Yright

  1. \fatsemi � \varcurlyvee � \Yup

( \fatslash \varcurlywedge Table 42: wasysym Binary Operators C \lhd # \ocircle � \RHD D \unrhd � \LHD B \rhd E \unlhd Table 43: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators V \circledbar T \circledwedge � \medcirc W \circledbslash M \invamp } \sqcapplus U \circledvee � \medbullet | \sqcupplus 21 Table 44: mathabx Binary Operators � \ast N \curlywedge [ \sqcap � \Asterisk � \divdot \ \sqcup X \barwedge � \divideontimes ^ \sqdoublecap � \bigstar � \dotdiv _ \sqdoublecup � \bigvarstar 􀀀 \dotplus � \square � \blackdiamond � \dottimes ] \squplus X \cap Z \doublebarwedge � \udot � \circplus \ \doublecap Z \uplus � \coasterisk ] \doublecup � \varstar � \coAsterisk

\ltimes _ \vee 
\convolution 	 \pluscirc Y \veebar Y \cup � \rtimes [ \veedoublebar O \curlyvee 
\sqbullet ^ \wedge

Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet, and \ast is equivalent to *. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast, but as an ordinary symbol, not a binary operator. Similarly, \bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator, and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator. Table 45: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators � \odplus Table 46: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators  \blacktriangledown i \boxright a \ominus ž \blacktriangleleft m \boxslash ' \oplus Ÿ \blacktriangleright b \boxtimes i \oright œ \blacktriangleup j \boxtop m \oslash f \boxasterisk o \boxtriangleup b \otimes n \boxbackslash l \boxvoid j \otop k \boxbot f \oasterisk o \otriangleup e \boxcirc n \obackslash l \ovoid g \boxcoasterisk k \obot ™ \smalltriangledown c \boxdiv e \ocirc š \smalltriangleleft d \boxdot g \ocoasterisk › \smalltriangleright h \boxleft c \odiv ˜ \smalltriangleup a \boxminus d \odot ' \boxplus h \oleft 22 Table 47: Variable-sized Math Operators T \ \bigcap NO \bigotimes V^ \bigwedge QY \prod S [ \bigcup F G \bigsqcup 'a \coprod PX \sum JK \bigodot U ] \biguplus R Z \int LM \bigoplus W _ \bigvee H I \oint Table 48: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators RR ZZ \iint RRR ZZZ \iiint RRRRZZZZ \iiiint R··· RZ · · · Z \idotsint Table 49: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators em \bigbox g o \biginterleave �� \bigsqcap bj \bigcurlyvee 􀀀� \bignplus `h \bigtriangledown ck \bigcurlywedge f n \bigparallel ai \bigtriangleup Table 50: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators r w \int† ! " \iint # $ \iiint r w \varint� u z \varoint� � \oiint None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals option. � Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option. † Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise, the default LATEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 47) is used. 23 Table 51: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators œ¬ \bigcurlyvee Ýý \bigboxslash Éé \bigoright – ¦ \bigsqcap Òò \bigboxtimes Íí \bigoslash ›« \bigcurlywedge Úú \bigboxtop Êê \bigotop Öö \bigboxasterisk ßÿ \bigboxtriangleup Ïï \bigotriangleup Þþ \bigboxbackslash Üü \bigboxvoid Ìì \bigovoid Ûû \bigboxbot ’ ¢ \bigcomplementop  \bigplus Õõ \bigboxcirc Ææ \bigoasterisk ˜ ¨ \bigsquplus ×÷ \bigboxcoasterisk Îî \bigobackslash ‘¡ \bigtimes Óó \bigboxdiv Ëë \bigobot µ½ \iiint Ôô \bigboxdot Åå \bigocirc ´ ¼ \iint Øø \bigboxleft Çç \bigocoasterisk ³ » \int Ññ \bigboxminus Ãã \bigodiv · ¿ \oiint Ðð \bigboxplus Èè \bigoleft ¶ ¾ \oint Ùù \bigboxright Áá \bigominus 24 Table 52: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators � � \bigsqcapplus �

\ointclockwise

� � \bigsqcupplus

� \ointctrclockwise

> ? \fint R S \sqiiint '( \idotsint P Q \sqiint % & \iiiint � � \sqint

  1. $ \iiint F G \varoiiintclockwise

! " \iint N O \varoiiintctrclockwise L M \oiiintclockwise B C \varoiintclockwise D E \oiiintctrclockwise J K \varoiintctrclockwise ) * \oiiint - . \varointclockwise H I \oiintclockwise + , \varointctrclockwise @ A \oiintctrclockwise � � \varprod � \oiint 25 Table 53: esint Variable-sized Math Operators ¯ ˙ \dotsint ı � \ointclockwise ffl \fint � ‰ \ointctrclockwise ˇ ˘ \iiiint ” „ \sqiint ˝ ° \iiint › “ \sqint ˜ ¨ \iint ! " \varoiint % & \landdownint ff fi \varointclockwise

  1. $ \landupint fl ffi \varointctrclockwise

‚ ‹ \oiint Table 54: Binary Relations � \approx � \equiv ? \perp ^ \smile � \asymp _ \frown � \prec � \succ ./ \bowtie Z \Join� � \preceq � \succeq � \cong | \mid / \propto ` \vdash a \dashv |= \models � \sim � \doteq k \parallel ' \simeq � Not predefined in LATEX2". Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. Table 55: AMS Binary Relations u \approxeq P \eqcirc v \succapprox ? \backepsilon ; \fallingdotseq < \succcurlyeq v \backsim ( \multimap % \succsim w \backsimeq t \pitchfork ) \therefore

  • \because w \precapprox t \thickapprox

G \between 4 \preccurlyeq s \thicksim m \Bumpeq - \precsim _ \varpropto l \bumpeq : \risingdotseq

\Vdash

$ \circeq p \shortmid � \vDash 2 \curlyeqprec q \shortparallel � \Vvdash 3 \curlyeqsucc a \smallfrown + \doteqdot ` \smallsmile 26 Table 56: AMS Negated Binary Relations � \ncong / \nshortparallel 3 \nVDash - \nmid / \nsim � \precnapprox , \nparallel � \nsucc � \precnsim � \nprec � \nsucceq � \succnapprox � \npreceq 2 \nvDash � \succnsim . \nshortmid 0 \nvdash Table 57: stmaryrd Binary Relations A \inplus B \niplus Table 58: wasysym Binary Relations � \invneg { \leadsto � \wasypropto Z \Join � \logof Table 59: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations S \circledgtr X \lJoin ] \opentimes R \circledless \ \lrtimes y \Perp

\colonapprox ( \multimap � \preceqq

� \Colonapprox � \multimapboth � \precneqq D \coloneq • \multimapbothvert Y \rJoin H \Coloneq � \multimapdot K \strictfi F \Coloneqq � \multimapdotboth J \strictif B \coloneqq� � \multimapdotbothA L \strictiff � \Colonsim ˜ \multimapdotbothAvert � \succeqq � \colonsim � \multimapdotbothB � \succneqq I \Eqcolon — \multimapdotbothBvert \varparallel E \eqcolon – \multimapdotbothvert

\varparallelinv

C \eqqcolon � \multimapdotinv � \VvDash G \Eqqcolon � \multimapinv h \eqsim [ \openJoin � As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts, a “:=” symbol can be constructed with “\mathrel{\mathop:}=”. 27 Table 60: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations 6 \napproxeq $ \npreccurlyeq 5 \nthickapprox - \nasymp 9 \npreceqq h \ntwoheadleftarrow

  • \nbacksim � \nprecsim g \ntwoheadrightarrow

+ \nbacksimeq ; \nsimeq � \nvarparallel ( \nbumpeq 8 \nsuccapprox � \nvarparallelinv ) \nBumpeq % \nsucccurlyeq 1 \nVdash . \nequiv : \nsucceqq 7 \nprecapprox � \nsuccsim Table 61: mathabx Binary Relations \between � \divides � \risingdotseq � \botdoteq � \dotseq Ç \succapprox � \Bumpedeq � \eqbumped ¥ \succcurlyeq � \bumpedeq � \eqcirc Í \succdot � \circeq � \eqcolon Á \succsim � \coloneq � \fallingdotseq 6 \therefore � \corresponds Ï \ggcurly � \topdoteq ¶ \curlyeqprec Î \llcurly ( \vDash · \curlyeqsucc Æ \precapprox , \Vdash ) \DashV ¤ \preccurlyeq ( \VDash ) \Dashv Ì \precdot , \Vvdash - \dashVv À \precsim Table 62: mathabx Negated Binary Relations � \napprox M \notperp * \nvDash � \ncong ¢ \nprec * \nVDash ¸ \ncurlyeqprec È \nprecapprox . \nVdash ¹ \ncurlyeqsucc ¦ \npreccurlyeq & \nvdash + \nDashv ª \npreceq . \nVvash / \ndashV  \nprecsim Ê \precnapprox ' \ndashv � \nsim ¬ \precneq + \nDashV � \nsimeq Ä \precnsim / \ndashVv £ \nsucc Ë \succnapprox � \neq É \nsuccapprox ­ \succneq � \notasymp § \nsucccurlyeq Å \succnsim � \notdivides « \nsucceq � \notequiv à \nsuccsim The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Thus, “$a \not= b$” can be made to produce either “a ?= b” or “a ?= b”. 28 Table 63: trsym Binary Relations � \InversTransformHoriz 􀀀 \TransformHoriz � \InversTransformVert � \TransformVert Table 64: trfsigns Binary Relations c. \dfourier . c \Dfourier c \fourier c \Fourier c s \laplace s c \Laplace c. s \ztransf s . c \Ztransf Table 65: Subset and Superset Relations @ \sqsubset� w \sqsupseteq � \supset v \sqsubseteq � \subset � \supseteq A \sqsupset� � \subseteq � Not predefined in LATEX2". Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. Table 66: AMS Subset and Superset Relations

  • \nsubseteq j \subseteqq % \supsetneqq

+ \nsupseteq ( \subsetneq \varsubsetneq

  1. \nsupseteqq $ \subsetneqq & \varsubsetneqq

@ \sqsubset c \Supset ! \varsupsetneq A \sqsupset k \supseteqq ' \varsupsetneqq b \Subset ) \supsetneq Table 67: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations D \subsetplus E \supsetplus F \subsetpluseq G \supsetpluseq Table 68: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations @ \sqsubset A \sqsupset Table 69: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations a \nsqsubset A \nsqsupseteq ? \nSupset @ \nsqsubseteq > \nSubset b \nsqsupset " \nsubseteqq 29 Table 70: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations ‚ \nsqsubset ƒ \nsupset … \sqsupseteq … \supseteq – \nsqSubset — \nSupset  \sqsupseteqq  \supseteqq † \nsqsubseteq ‡ \nsupseteq ‰ \sqsupsetneq ‰ \supsetneq Ž \nsqsubseteqq  \nsupseteqq ‘ \sqsupsetneqq ‘ \supsetneqq ƒ \nsqsupset € \sqsubset € \subset Š \varsqsubsetneq — \nsqSupset ” \sqSubset ” \Subset ’ \varsqsubsetneqq ‡ \nsqsupseteq „ \sqsubseteq „ \subseteq ‹ \varsqsupsetneq  \nsqsupseteqq Œ \sqsubseteqq Œ \subseteqq “ \varsqsupsetneqq ‚ \nsubset ˆ \sqsubsetneq ˆ \subsetneq Š \varsubsetneq – \nSubset  \sqsubsetneqq  \subsetneqq ’ \varsubsetneqq † \nsubseteq • \sqSupset  \supset ‹ \varsupsetneq Ž \nsubseteqq  \sqsupset • \Supset “ \varsupsetneqq Table 71: Inequalities � \geq � \gg � \leq � \ll , \neq Table 72: AMS Inequalities 1 \eqslantgtr m \gtrdot Q \lesseqgtr � \ngeq 0 \eqslantless R \gtreqless S \lesseqqgtr � \ngeqq = \geqq T \gtreqqless 7 \lessgtr � \ngeqslant > \geqslant ? \gtrless . \lesssim � \ngtr o \ggg & \gtrsim n \lll � \nleq � \gnapprox � \gvertneqq � \lnapprox � \nleqq

\gneq 5 \leqq � \lneq 
\nleqslant

\gneqq 6 \leqslant � \lneqq � \nless � \gnsim / \lessapprox � \lnsim ' \gtrapprox l \lessdot 􀀀 \lvertneqq Table 73: wasysym Inequalities ? \apprge > \apprle Table 74: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities 4 \ngg ! \ngtrsim \nlesssim

  1. \ngtrapprox " \nlessapprox 3 \nll

& \ngtrless ' \nlessgtr 30 Table 75: mathabx Inequalities · \eqslantgtr ½ \gtreqless À \lesssim £ \ngtr ¶ \eqslantless ¿ \gtreqqless ! \ll É \ngtrapprox ¥ \geq » \gtrless Î \lll à \ngtrsim ¯ \geqq Á \gtrsim Ê \lnapprox ¦ \nleq " \gg µ \gvertneqq ¬ \lneq ° \nleqq Ï \ggg ¤ \leq ² \lneqq ¢ \nless Ë \gnapprox ® \leqq Ä \lnsim È \nlessapprox ­ \gneq Æ \lessapprox ´ \lvertneqq  \nlesssim ³ \gneqq Ì \lessdot ¹ \neqslantgtr « \nvargeq Å \gnsim ¼ \lesseqgtr ¸ \neqslantless ª \nvarleq Ç \gtrapprox ¾ \lesseqqgtr § \ngeq © \vargeq Í \gtrdot º \lessgtr ± \ngeqq ¨ \varleq mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq, \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq, \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq, and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq. Table 76: AMS Triangle Relations J \blacktriangleleft 5 \ntrianglelefteq E \trianglelefteq C \vartriangleleft I \blacktriangleright 7 \ntriangleright , \triangleq B \vartriangleright 6 \ntriangleleft 4 \ntrianglerighteq D \trianglerighteq Table 77: stmaryrd Triangle Relations P \trianglelefteqslant Q \trianglerighteqslant R \ntrianglelefteqslant S \ntrianglerighteqslant Table 78: mathabx Triangle Relations š \ntriangleleft Ÿ \ntrianglerighteq ™ \triangleright ™ \vartriangleright ž \ntrianglelefteq ˜ \triangleleft  \trianglerighteq › \ntriangleright œ \trianglelefteq ˜ \vartriangleleft 31 Table 79: Arrows + \Downarrow − \longleftarrow - \nwarrow

  1. \downarrow (= \Longleftarrow ) \Rightarrow
- \hookleftarrow  ! \longleftrightarrow ! \rightarrow

,! \hookrightarrow () \Longleftrightarrow & \searrow { \leadsto� 7−! \longmapsto . \swarrow

 \leftarrow =) \Longrightarrow " \uparrow

( \Leftarrow −! \longrightarrow * \Uparrow , \Leftrightarrow 7! \mapsto l \updownarrow $ \leftrightarrow % \nearrow† m \Updownarrow � Not predefined in LATEX2". Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. † See the note beneath Table 126 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow across a mathematical expression (as in “���*0 r · ~B ”) . Table 80: Harpoons ) \leftharpoondown + \rightharpoondown *) \rightleftharpoons ( \leftharpoonup * \rightharpoonup Table 81: textcomp Text-mode Arrows _ \textdownarrow � \textrightarrow � \textleftarrow ^ \textuparrow Table 82: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft � \leftleftarrows � \rightleftarrows � \circlearrowright � \leftrightarrows � \rightrightarrows x \curvearrowleft ! \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow y \curvearrowright W \Lleftarrow � \Rsh c \dashleftarrow " \looparrowleft � \twoheadleftarrow d \dashrightarrow # \looparrowright � \twoheadrightarrow � \downdownarrows � \Lsh � \upuparrows � \leftarrowtail � \rightarrowtail Table 83: AMS Negated Arrows

\nLeftarrow < \nLeftrightarrow ; \nRightarrow

8 \nleftarrow = \nleftrightarrow 9 \nrightarrow 32 Table 84: AMS Harpoons � \downharpoonleft � \leftrightharpoons � \upharpoonleft � \downharpoonright

\rightleftharpoons � \upharpoonright

Table 85: stmaryrd Arrows ^ \leftarrowtriangle (\ \Mapsfrom 􀀀 \shortleftarrow - \leftrightarroweq [ \mapsfrom � \shortrightarrow ] \leftrightarrowtriangle �) \Mapsto � \shortuparrow

 \lightning 1 \nnearrow % \ssearrow

(=\ \Longmapsfrom 0 \nnwarrow $ \sswarrow

−[ \longmapsfrom _ \rightarrowtriangle

�=) \Longmapsto � \shortdownarrow Table 86: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows ‹ \boxdotLeft “ \circleddotright … \Diamondleft ƒ \boxdotleft ’ \circleleft „ \Diamondright ‚ \boxdotright ‘ \circleright Œ \DiamondRight Š \boxdotRight e \dashleftrightarrow f \leftsquigarrow ‰ \boxLeft  \DiamonddotLeft t \Nearrow  \boxleft ‡ \Diamonddotleft v \Nwarrow € \boxright † \Diamonddotright V \Rrightarrow ˆ \boxRight Ž \DiamonddotRight u \Searrow ” \circleddotleft  \DiamondLeft w \Swarrow Table 87: mathabx Arrows ö \circlearrowleft Ð \leftarrow Ô \nwarrow ÷ \circlearrowright Ð \leftleftarrows æ \restriction ó \curvearrowbotleft Ø \leftrightarrow Ñ \rightarrow õ \curvearrowbotleftright Ô \leftrightarrows Õ \rightleftarrows ô \curvearrowbotright ú \leftrightsquigarrow Ñ \rightrightarrows ð \curvearrowleft ø \leftsquigarrow ù \rightsquigarrow ò \curvearrowleftright ü \lefttorightarrow ý \righttoleftarrow ñ \curvearrowright î \looparrowdownleft é \Rsh ê \dlsh ï \looparrowdownright × \searrow Ó \downdownarrows ì \looparrowleft Ö \swarrow ÿ \downtouparrow í \looparrowright Ö \updownarrows × \downuparrows è \Lsh þ \uptodownarrow ë \drsh Õ \nearrow Ò \upuparrows Table 88: mathabx Negated Arrows ö \nLeftarrow Ü \nleftrightarrow Û \nrightarrow Ú \nleftarrow ø \nLeftrightarrow ÷ \nRightarrow 33 Table 89: mathabx Harpoons Þ \barleftharpoon à \leftharpoonup é \rightleftharpoons ß \barrightharpoon Ø \leftleftharpoons Ù \rightrightharpoons Û \downdownharpoons à \leftrightharpoon ê \updownharpoons å \downharpoonleft è \leftrightharpoons ä \upharpoonleft ç \downharpoonright Ý \rightbarharpoon æ \upharpoonright ë \downupharpoons ã \rightharpoondown Ú \upupharpoons Ü \leftbarharpoon á \rightharpoonup â \leftharpoondown á \rightleftharpoon Table 90: chemarrow Arrows A \chemarrow Table 91: ulsy Contradiction Symbols \blitza

\blitzb � \blitzc � \blitzd 
\blitze

Table 92: Extension Characters − \relbar = \Relbar Table 93: stmaryrd Extension Characters Y \Arrownot \ \Mapsfromchar � \Mapstochar X \arrownot [ \mapsfromchar Table 94: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters � \Mappedfromchar � \Mmappedfromchar � \Mmapstochar 􀀀 \mappedfromchar � \mmappedfromchar � \mmapstochar Table 95: mathabx Extension Characters ß \mapsfromchar Þ \mapstochar û \Mapsfromchar ú \Mapstochar 34 Table 96: Log-like Symbols \arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \limsup \min \sinh \arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \ln \Pr \sup \arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log \sec \tan \arg \coth \dim \inf \liminf \max \sin \tanh Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.1 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 7.3 for more information about log-like symbols. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for samples. Table 97: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim \injlim lim −! \varinjlim lim \varlimsup proj lim \projlim lim \varliminf lim

\varprojlim Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 7.3 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for samples. Table 98: Greek Letters � \alpha � \theta o o � \tau � \beta # \vartheta � \pi � \upsilon

\gamma � \iota $ \varpi � \phi

� \delta � \kappa � \rho ' \varphi � \epsilon � \lambda % \varrho � \chi " \varepsilon μ \mu � \sigma \psi � \zeta � \nu & \varsigma ! \omega � \eta � \xi 􀀀 \Gamma � \Lambda � \Sigma \Psi � \Delta � \Xi � \Upsilon

\Omega

� \Theta � \Pi � \Phi The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The symbol “M”, for instance, is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “μ”. See Section 7.4 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters. Table 99: AMS Greek Letters z \digamma { \varkappa 1Michael J. Downes prefers the more general term, “atomic math objects”. 35 Table 100: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters � \alphaup � \thetaup � \piup � \phiup � \betaup # \varthetaup $ \varpiup ' \varphiup

\gammaup � \iotaup � \rhoup � \chiup

� \deltaup � \kappaup % \varrhoup \psiup � \epsilonup � \lambdaup � \sigmaup ! \omegaup " \varepsilonup μ \muup & \varsigmaup � \zetaup � \nuup � \tauup � \etaup � \xiup � \upsilonup Table 101: upgreek Upright Greek Letters a \upalpha q \uptheta p \uppi f \upphi b \upbeta J \upvartheta v \upvarpi j \upvarphi g \upgamma i \upiota r \uprho c \upchi d \updelta k \upkappa r \upvarrho y \uppsi e \upepsilon l \uplambda s \upsigma w \upomega e \upvarepsilon m \upmu s \upvarsigma z \upzeta n \upnu t \uptau h \upeta x \upxi u \upupsilon G \Upgamma L \Uplambda S \Upsigma Y \Uppsi D \Updelta X \Upxi U \Upupsilon W \Upomega Q \Uptheta P \Uppi F \Upphi upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman. As a result, the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. Contrast, for example, “GDQabg” (Symbol) with “􀀀���� ” (Euler). Table 102: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters 1 \varg 3 \varv 4 \varw 2 \vary Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with 1, 3, 4, and 2 in every mathematical expression in your document. Table 103: AMS Hebrew Letters i \beth j \gimel k \daleth \aleph appears in Table 145 on page 46. Table 104: Letter-like Symbols ? \bot 8 \forall ı \imath 3 \ni > \top ` \ell ~ \hbar 2 \in @ \partial } \wp 9 \exists = \Im | \jmath < \Re 36 Table 105: AMS Letter-like Symbols k \Bbbk { \complement ~ \hbar r \circledR ` \Finv } \hslash s \circledS a \Game @ \nexists Table 106: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢ \mathcent £ \mathsterling� < \notin = \notni � It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode. Table 107: mathabx Letter-like Symbols V \barin P \in L \nottop T \varnotin A \complement E \nexists Q \owns U \varnotowner D \exists M \notbot W \ownsbar F \Finv R \notin B \partial G \Game S \notowner C \partialslash Table 108: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e \e j \im Table 109: AMS Delimiters p \ulcorner q \urcorner x \llcorner y \lrcorner Table 110: stmaryrd Delimiters P \Lbag Q \Rbag N \lbag O \rbag V \llceil W \rrceil T \llfloor U \rrfloor L \llparenthesis M \rrparenthesis Table 111: mathabx Delimiters v \lcorners w \rcorners x \ulcorner y \urcorner z \llcorner { \lrcorner 37 Table 112: nath Delimiters \niv \vin Table 113: Variable-sized Delimiters

  1.  ??y \downarrow + ww? \Downarrow [ h [ ] i ]

h D \langle i E \rangle | �� |� k

\|

d l \lceil e m \rceil " x?? \uparrow * ~ww \Uparrow b j \lfloor c k \rfloor l x?y \updownarrow m ~w? \Updownarrow ( � ( ) � ) { n \{ } o \} / . / \ / \backslash When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression. Note that \vert is a synonym for |, and \Vert is a synonym for \|. � "-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right that can be used to make an internal “|” (often used to indicate “evaluated at”) expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols. A similar effect can be achieved in conventional LATEX using the braket package. Table 114: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters 8; 8> >>>; \lmoustache 9: 9> >>>: \rmoustache 8: 8> >>>: \lgroup 9; 9> >>>; \rgroup ?? ????? \arrowvert ww wwwww \Arrowvert >>>> >>>>>>>>>> \bracevert These symbols must be used with \left and \right. The mathabx package, however, redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right. 38 Table 115: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters | �� \lvert | �� \rvert k

\lVert k 
\rVert

According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99], the preceding symbols are intended to be used as delimiters (e.g., as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert symbols (Table 113 on the previous page) are intended to be used as operators (e.g., as in “p|q”). Table 116: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters ~ � \llbracket ? � \rrbracket Table 117: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters v 1 \lbbbrack w 9 \rbbbrack 7 7777 \lfilet ? ???? \rfilet ~ �� \thickvert ~ �� \vvvert Table 118: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) h DD \lAngle i EE \rAngle hh \lBrack ii \rBrack dd ll \lCeil ee mm \rCeil bb jj \lFloor cc kk \rFloor || �� \lVert� || �� \rVert� � nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. Hence, separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. All of the symbols in Table 118 can also be expressed using the \double macro. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information. 39 Table 119: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) hh DDD \triple< ii EEE \triple> [[[ hhh \triple[ ]]] iii \triple] ||| �� \ltriple|� ||| �� \rtriple|� � Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 118, \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument. Table 120: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters < \textlangle > \textrangle [ \textlbrackdbl ] \textrbrackdbl

 \textlquill ¡ \textrquill

Table 121: metre Text-mode Delimiters } \alad } \Alad † \crux † \Crux { \alas { \Alas ]] \quadrad ]] \Quadrad i \angud i \Angud [[ \quadras [[ \Quadras h \angus h \Angus Table 122: Math-mode Accents ´a \acute{a} ˇa \check{a} `a \grave{a} ˜a \tilde{a} ¯a \bar{a} ¨a \ddot{a} ˆa \hat{a} ~a \vec{a} ˘a \breve{a} ˙a \dot{a} °a \mathring{a} Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j ”. (See Table 145 on page 46.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ˆı ”, while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ˆi ”. Table 123: AMS Math-mode Accents ... a \dddot{a} .... a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx package. 40 Table 124: yhmath Math-mode Accents °a \ring{a} This symbol is largely obsolete, as standard LATEX2" has supported \mathring since June, 1998 [LAT98]. Table 125: trfsigns Math-mode Accents a \dft{a} a \DFT{a} The above are a sort of “reverse accent” in that the argument text serves as a subscript to the transform line. Table 126: Extensible Accents Ýabc \widetilde{abc}� Óabc \widehat{abc}� a b−c \overleftarrow{abc}† a−!bc \overrightarrow{abc}† abc \overline{abc} abc \underline{abc} z}|{ abc \overbrace{abc} |a{bzc} \underbrace{abc} pabc \sqrt{abc}‡ As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97], an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a “\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row. The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv.tex) that automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and the desired text—long-division problems. See also the polynom package, which automatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner. � Made more extensible by the yhmath package. † If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or reducing mathematical subexpressions (e.g., “���� x + −x” or “���:5 3 + 2 ”) then consider using the cancel package. ‡ With an optional argument, \sqrt typesets nth roots. For example, “\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ 3pabc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ npabc ”. Table 127: overrightarrow Extensible Accents =) abc \Overrightarrow{abc} 41 Table 128: yhmath Extensible Accents öabc \wideparen{abc} éabc \widetriangle{abc} °öabc \widering{abc} Table 129: AMS Extensible Accents

! abc \overleftrightarrow{abc} abc  !

\underleftrightarrow{abc} abc − \underleftarrow{abc} abc −! \underrightarrow{abc} The following are a sort of “reverse accent” in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrow. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) serves as a subscript to the arrow. See the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for further examples. abc −− \xleftarrow{abc} abc −−! \xrightarrow{abc} Table 130: empheq Extensible Accents abc \overbracket{abc} abc \underbracket{abc} The following are each a sort of “reverse accent” in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrows. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) serves as a subscript to the arrows. abc

−−- \xhookleftarrow{abc}

−(a−−+b−c \xleftrightharpoons{abc} abc ,−−! \xhookrightarrow{abc} abc 7−−! \xmapsto{abc} abc (== \xLeftarrow{abc} abc =) \xRightarrow{abc} abc )−− \xleftharpoondown{abc} abc −−+ \xrightharpoondown{abc} abc (−− \xleftharpoonup{abc} abc −−* \xrightharpoonup{abc} abc (=) \xLeftrightarrow{abc} abc −)−−*− \xrightleftharpoons{abc} abc −! \xleftrightarrow{abc} Table 131: chemarr Extensible Accents abc −)−−*− \xrightleftharpoons{abc} \xrightleftharpoons is a sort of “reverse accent” in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrows. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) serves as a subscript to the arrows. 42 Table 132: chemarrow Extensible Accents abc DGGGGGGG def \autoleftarrow{abc}{def} abc GGGGGGGA def \autorightarrow{abc}{def} abc EGGGGGGGGGGGGCGG def \autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def} abc FGGGGGGGGGGGGBGG def \autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def} These symbols are all “reverse accents” in that the two arguments serve, respectively, as a superscript and a subscript to the arrows. In addition to the symbols shown above, chemarrow also provides \larrowfill, \rarrowfill, \leftrightharpoonsfill, and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length. Table 133: mathabx Extensible Accents hkikj abc \overbrace{abc} „abc \widebar{abc} hkkj abc \overgroup{abc} |abc \widecheck{abc} loambcon \underbrace{abc} aŒbc \wideparen{abc} laobocn \undergroup{abc} °öabc \widering{abc} ˆabc \widearrow{abc} The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. They can expand arbitrarily wide, however. Table 134: esvect Extensible Accents

abc \vv{abc} with package option a

abc \vv{abc} with package option b

  1. «

abc \vv{abc} with package option c

  1.  »

abc \vv{abc} with package option d

abc \vv{abc} with package option e

abc \vv{abc} with package option f

abc \vv{abc} with package option g

abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. See the esvect documentation for more information. 43 Table 135: undertilde Extensible Accents abc Ý \utilde{abc} Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package. Table 136: extarrows Extensible Accents abc (=) \xLeftrightarrow{abc} abc (=) \xLongleftrightarrow{abc} abc −! \xleftrightarrow{abc} abc −! \xlongleftrightarrow{abc} abc ==== \xlongequal{abc} abc ==) \xLongrightarrow{abc} abc (== \xLongleftarrow{abc} abc −−! \xlongrightarrow{abc} abc −− \xlongleftarrow{abc} The above are a sort of “reverse accent” in that the argument text serves as a superscript to the arrow. In addition, the optional first argument (not shown) serves as a subscript to the arrow. Table 137: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols abc def \holter{abc}{def} abc def \polter{abc}{def} Table 138: Dots · \cdotp : \colon� . \ldotp ... \vdots† · · · \cdots . . . \ddots† . . . \ldots � While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See Section 7.3 and the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing. † The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically.) \fixedddots and \fixedvdots provide the original, fixed-height functionality of LATEX2"’s \ddots and \vdots macros. 44 Table 139: AMS Dots · · · \dotsb · · · \dotsi . . . \dotso . . . \dotsc · · · \dotsm The AMS dot symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas, \dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs, and \dotso between other symbol pairs. Table 140: mathdots Dots . . . \iddots Table 141: yhmath Dots . .. \adots Table 142: mathcomp Math Symbols ‰ \tccentigrade W \tcohm ‰ \tcperthousand μ \tcmu ˜ \tcpertenthousand Table 143: mathabx Mayan Digits 0 \maya{0} 2 \maya{2} 4 \maya{4} 1 \maya{1} 3 \maya{3} 5 \maya{5} Table 144: marvosym Math Symbols 0 \MVZero 2 \MVTwo 4 \MVFour 6 \MVSix 8 \MVEight 1 \MVOne 3 \MVThree 5 \MVFive 7 \MVSeven 9 \MVNine W \Anglesign ÷ \Squaredot P \Vectorarrowhigh = \Corresponds p \Vectorarrow 45 Table 145: Miscellaneous LATEX2" Math Symbols @ \aleph ^ \Diamond� 1 \infty 0 \prime 6 \angle } \diamondsuit f \mho� ] \sharp \ \backslash ; \emptyset‡ r \nabla ? \spadesuit � \Box�,† [ \flat \ \natural p \surd | \clubsuit ~ \heartsuit ¬ \neg 4 \triangle � Not predefined in LATEX2". Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. † To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q.E.D.) marker, consider using the ntheorem package, which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text. ‡ Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (Table 146) to that of LATEX’s \emptyset. Table 146: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols \ \angle H \blacktriangledown f \mho 8 \backprime � \diagdown ^ \sphericalangle F \bigstar � \diagup � \square � \blacklozenge ð \eth O \triangledown � \blacksquare � \lozenge ? \varnothing N \blacktriangle ] \measuredangle M \vartriangle Table 147: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols 2 \Box f \mho� � \wasytherefore 3 \Diamond � \varangle � wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol, which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode. Table 148: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols _ \Diamondblack n \lambdaslash r \varheartsuit  \Diamonddot p \varclubsuit s \varspadesuit o \lambdabar q \vardiamondsuit Table 149: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols 0 \degree 4 \fourth > \measuredangle 2 \second å \diagdown # \hash & \pitchfork ? \sphericalangle ä \diagup 8 \infty 9 \propto 3 \third I \diameter $ \leftthreetimes % \rightthreetimes # \varhash 46 Table 150: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° \textdegree� ½ \textonehalf† ¾ \textthreequarters† ÷ \textdiv ¼ \textonequarter† ³ \textthreesuperior ⁄ \textfractionsolidus ¹ \textonesuperior × \texttimes ¬ \textlnot ± \textpm ² \texttwosuperior − \textminus » \textsurd � If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as “\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“�”). † nicefrac (part of the units package) can be used to construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”, “1/4”, “3/4”, and even “c/o”. 47 Table 151: Math Alphabets Font sample Generating command Required package ABCdef123 \mathrm{ABCdef123} none ABCdef123 \mathit{ABCdef123} none ABCdef123 \mathnormal{ABCdef123} none ABC \mathcal{ABC} none ABC \mathscr{ABC} mathrsfs or \mathcal{ABC} calrsfs ABC \mathcal{ABC} euscript with the mathcal option or \mathscr{ABC} euscript with the mathscr option ABCdef123 \mathpzc{ABCdef123} none; manually defined� ABC \mathbb{ABC} amsfonts,§ amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts ‚ƒ \varmathbb{ABC} txfonts or pxfonts ABCdef123 \mathbb{ABCdef123} bbold or mathbbol† ABCdef123 \mathbb{ABCdef123} mbboard† ABCdef12 \mathbbm{ABCdef12} bbm ABCdef12 \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} bbm ABCdef12 \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} bbm ABC1 \mathds{ABC1} dsfont ABC1 \mathds{ABC1} dsfont with the sans option ABCdef123 \mathfrak{ABCdef123} eufrak ABCdef123 \textfrak{ABCdef123} yfonts‡ ABCdef123 \textswab{ABCdef123} yfonts‡ ABCˇf123 \textgoth{ABCdef123} yfonts‡ � Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. † The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to matbbol— Greek letters. For instance, “<[(�� )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle \Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen\Rbrack\Rangle}”. mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. It supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such as \bbnabla (“š”)— but also all punctuation marks, various currency symbols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”), and the Hebrew alphabet (e.g., “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof \bbpe” ! “ÏÉ×Ô”). ‡ As their \text. . . names imply, the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. They are included in Table 151 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context. § An older (i.e., prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C, N, R, S, and Z as C, N, R, S, and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT, Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboard-bold glyphs to CTAN, to the fonts/msym10 directory. As of this writing, however, there are no LATEX2" packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs. 48 4 Science and technology symbols This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering (and, because we were extremely liberal in our classification, astrology, too). Table 152: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ‰ \celsius μ \micro ‰ \perthousand ° \degree W \ohm Table 153: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols

\AC @ \VHF :::: \photon F \HF QPPPPPPR \gluon

Table 154: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols ! \FallingEdge ' \LongPulseLow % \PulseLow " \ShortPulseHigh & \LongPulseHigh $ \PulseHigh \RaisingEdge # \ShortPulseLow In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid: l l m m h h d d < < > > L L M M H H D D = << ? >> This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “mm<DDD>mm” or “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “L|H|L|H|L”. See also the timing package, which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams. Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “-123.456”. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “8”. Table 155: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol A \AR Table 156: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols ‰ \textcelsius M \textmho μ \textmu W \textohm 49 Table 157: wasysym Astronomical Symbols � \ascnode X \jupiter \newmoon � \venus � \astrosun $ \leftmoon \ \pluto � \vernal � \descnode � \mars % \rightmoon & \earth ' \mercury Y \saturn

  1. \fullmoon [ \neptune Z \uranus

Table 158: marvosym Astronomical Symbols  \Mercury Ä \Mars Ç \Uranus À \Sun à \Venus Å \Jupiter È \Neptune Á \Moon Ê \Earth Æ \Saturn É \Pluto Table 159: mathabx Astronomical Symbols A \Mercury C \Earth E \Jupiter G \Uranus I \Pluto B \Venus D \Mars F \Saturn H \Neptune M \fullmoon K \leftmoon N \newmoon L \rightmoon @ \Sun J \varEarth mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus, \boy as an alias for \Mars, and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon. Table 160: wasysym Astrological Symbols � \aries _ \cancer a \libra d \capricornus ] \taurus � \leo b \scorpio e \aquarius ^ \gemini ` \virgo c \sagittarius f \pisces V \conjunction W \opposition Table 161: marvosym Astrological Symbols à \Aries ã \Cancer æ \Libra é \Capricorn á \Taurus ä \Leo ç \Scorpio ê \Aquarius â \Gemini å \Virgo è \Sagittarius ë \Pisces Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . . \Zodiac{12}. Table 162: mathabx Astrological Symbols P \Aries Q \Taurus R \Gemini 50 Table 163: wasysym APL Symbols ~ \APLbox ÷~ \APLinv E \APLstar ? \APLcomment p \APLleftarrowbox 􀀀 \APLup F \APLdown � \APLlog n \APLuparrowbox o \APLdownarrowbox − \APLminus \− \notbackslash } \APLinput q \APLrightarrowbox /− \notslash Table 164: wasysym APL Modifiers � \APLcirc{} � \APLnot{} | \APLvert{} Table 165: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í \ComputerMouse Ñ \ParallelPort Î \SerialInterface Ï \Keyboard Ò \Printer Ð \SerialPort Table 166: ascii Control Characters (IBM) � \SOH • \BEL

\CR � \DCc � \EM � \US

� \STX � \BS � \SO ¶ \DCd � \SUB ¦ \splitvert � \ETX T \HT � \SI § \NAK � \ESC ? \DEL � \EOT

\LF � \DLE � \SYN � \FS

� \ENQ � \VT � \DCa � \ETB � \GS � \ACK � \FF � \DCb � \CAN � \RS SOH, STX, ETX, . . ., US are the names of ASCII characters 1–31. DEL is the name of ASCII character 127. \splitvert doesn’t correspond to a control character but is merely the “|” character shown IBM style. These characters must be entered with the ascii font in effect, for example, “{\ascii\STX}”. See the ascii package documentation for more information. Table 167: marvosym Communication Symbols k \Email t \fax v \Faxmachine E \Lightning A \Pickup z \Emailct u \FAX B \Letter H \Mobilefone T \Telefon 51 Table 168: marvosym Engineering Symbols " \Beam l \Force ‘ \Octosteel ž \RoundedTTsteel

  1. \Bearing ’ \Hexasteel ˜ \Rectpipe — \Squarepipe

› \Circpipe & \Lefttorque ” \Rectsteel “ \Squaresteel • \Circsteel L \Lineload ' \Righttorque oe \Tsteel % \Fixedbearing $ \Loosebearing Ÿ \RoundedLsteel� š \TTsteel – \Flatsteel ™ \Lsteel  \RoundedTsteel� � \RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped, at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym. Table 169: wasysym Biological Symbols � \female � \male Table 170: marvosym Biological Symbols ~ \Female … \FemaleMale ‚ \MALE { \Neutral  \FEMALE } \Hermaphrodite | \Male „ \FemaleFemale € \HERMAPHRODITE ƒ \MaleMale Table 171: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h \Biohazard C \CEsign ` \Explosionsafe j \Radioactivity n \BSEfree J \Estatically a \Laserbeam ! \Stopsign 52 5 Dingbats Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a LATEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However, rather than name each of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol. Table 172: bbding Arrows y \ArrowBoldDownRight z \ArrowBoldRightShort x \ArrowBoldUpRight { \ArrowBoldRightCircled w \ArrowBoldRightStrobe Table 173: pifont Arrows Ô \ding{212} Ý \ding{221} æ \ding{230} ï \ding{239} ù \ding{249} Õ \ding{213} Þ \ding{222} ç \ding{231} ñ \ding{241} ú \ding{250} Ö \ding{214} ß \ding{223} è \ding{232} ò \ding{242} û \ding{251} × \ding{215} à \ding{224} é \ding{233} ó \ding{243} ü \ding{252} Ø \ding{216} á \ding{225} ê \ding{234} ô \ding{244} ý \ding{253} Ù \ding{217} â \ding{226} ë \ding{235} õ \ding{245} þ \ding{254} Ú \ding{218} ã \ding{227} ì \ding{236} ö \ding{246} Û \ding{219} ä \ding{228} í \ding{237} ÷ \ding{247} Ü \ding{220} å \ding{229} î \ding{238} ø \ding{248} Table 174: marvosym Scissors s \Cutleft q \Cutright S \Leftscissors r \Cutline R \Kutline Q \Rightscissors Table 175: bbding Scissors � \ScissorHollowLeft � \ScissorLeftBrokenTop � \ScissorHollowRight � \ScissorRight � \ScissorLeft 􀀀 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom � \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom � \ScissorRightBrokenTop Table 176: pifont Scissors ! \ding{33} " \ding{34} # \ding{35} $ \ding{36} 53 Table 177: dingbat Pencils W \largepencil P \smallpencil Table 178: bbding Pencils and Nibs � \NibLeft � \PencilLeft � \PencilRightDown � \NibRight � \PencilLeftDown � \PencilRightUp \NibSolidLeft � \PencilLeftUp � \NibSolidRight � \PencilRight Table 179: pifont Pencils and Nibs . \ding{46} / \ding{47} 0 \ding{48} 1 \ding{49} 2 \ding{50} Table 180: dingbat Hands R \leftpointright L \rightpointleft N \rightpointright D \leftthumbsdown d \rightthumbsdown U \leftthumbsup u \rightthumbsup Table 181: bbding Hands � \HandCuffLeft � \HandCuffRightUp � \HandPencilLeft � \HandCuffLeftUp � \HandLeft � \HandRight

\HandCuffRight � \HandLeftUp � \HandRightUp

Table 182: pifont Hands

  • \ding{42} + \ding{43} , \ding{44} - \ding{45}

Table 183: bbding Crosses and Plusses * \Cross + \CrossOpenShadow & \PlusOutline - \CrossBoldOutline , \CrossOutline ) \PlusThinCenterOpen 4 \CrossClowerTips ' \Plus . \CrossMaltese ( \PlusCenterOpen 54 Table 184: pifont Crosses and Plusses 9 \ding{57} ; \ding{59} = \ding{61} ? \ding{63}

\ding{58} < \ding{60} > \ding{62} @ \ding{64}

Table 185: bbding Xs and Check Marks ! \Checkmark # \XSolid % \XSolidBrush " \CheckmarkBold $ \XSolidBold Table 186: pifont Xs and Check Marks 3 \ding{51} 5 \ding{53} 7 \ding{55} 4 \ding{52} 6 \ding{54} 8 \ding{56} Table 187: wasysym Xs and Check Marks 2� \CheckedBox � \Square 4 \XBox Table 188: pifont Circled Numbers ¬ \ding{172} ¶ \ding{182} À \ding{192} Ê \ding{202} ­ \ding{173} · \ding{183} Á \ding{193} Ë \ding{203} ® \ding{174} ¸ \ding{184} Â \ding{194} Ì \ding{204} ¯ \ding{175} ¹ \ding{185} Ã \ding{195} Í \ding{205} ° \ding{176} º \ding{186} Ä \ding{196} Î \ding{206} ± \ding{177} » \ding{187} Å \ding{197} Ï \ding{207} ² \ding{178} ¼ \ding{188} Æ \ding{198} Ð \ding{208} ³ \ding{179} ½ \ding{189} Ç \ding{199} Ñ \ding{209} ´ \ding{180} ¾ \ding{190} È \ding{200} Ò \ding{210} µ \ding{181} ¿ \ding{191} É \ding{201} Ó \ding{211} pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.2 See the psnfss documentation for more information. Table 189: wasysym Stars C \davidsstar A \hexstar B \varhexstar 2In fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols. 55 Table 190: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes N \Asterisk P \FiveFlowerPetal 2 \JackStar A \AsteriskBold 8 \FiveStar 3 \JackStarBold B \AsteriskCenterOpen ; \FiveStarCenterOpen O \SixFlowerAlternate X \AsteriskRoundedEnds ? \FiveStarConvex U \SixFlowerAltPetal C \AsteriskThin 7 \FiveStarLines M \SixFlowerOpenCenter D \AsteriskThinCenterOpen 9 \FiveStarOpen Q \SixFlowerPetalDotted 0 \DavidStar : \FiveStarOpenCircled L \SixFlowerPetalRemoved / \DavidStarSolid < \FiveStarOpenDotted [ \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal Z \EightAsterisk = \FiveStarOutline G \SixStar S \EightFlowerPetal > \FiveStarOutlineHeavy K \SixteenStarLight Y \EightFlowerPetalRemoved @ \FiveStarShadow ` \Snowflake H \EightStar 1 \FourAsterisk ^ \SnowflakeChevron I \EightStarBold V \FourClowerOpen _ \SnowflakeChevronBold F \EightStarConvex W \FourClowerSolid ] \Sparkle E \EightStarTaper 5 \FourStar \ \SparkleBold R \FiveFlowerOpen 6 \FourStarOpen J \TwelweStar Table 191: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes A \ding{65} J \ding{74} S \ding{83} \ \ding{92} e \ding{101} B \ding{66} K \ding{75} T \ding{84} ] \ding{93} f \ding{102} C \ding{67} L \ding{76} U \ding{85} ^ \ding{94} g \ding{103} D \ding{68} M \ding{77} V \ding{86} _ \ding{95} h \ding{104} E \ding{69} N \ding{78} W \ding{87} ` \ding{96} i \ding{105} F \ding{70} O \ding{79} X \ding{88} a \ding{97} j \ding{106} G \ding{71} P \ding{80} Y \ding{89} b \ding{98} k \ding{107} H \ding{72} Q \ding{81} Z \ding{90} c \ding{99} I \ding{73} R \ding{82} [ \ding{91} d \ding{100} Table 192: wasysym Geometric Shapes 7 \hexagon 8 \octagon D \pentagon 9 \varhexagon 56 Table 193: ifsym Geometric Shapes % \BigCircle T \FilledBigTriangleRight E \SmallCircle

\BigCross Q \FilledBigTriangleUp � \SmallCross & \BigDiamondshape e \FilledCircle F \SmallDiamondshape � \BigHBar � \FilledDiamondShadowA � \SmallHBar _ \BigLowerDiamond 	 \FilledDiamondShadowC ? \SmallLowerDiamond / \BigRightDiamond f \FilledDiamondshape O \SmallRightDiamond \BigSquare u \FilledSmallCircle @ \SmallSquare # \BigTriangleDown v \FilledSmallDiamondshape C \SmallTriangleDown " \BigTriangleLeft p \FilledSmallSquare B \SmallTriangleLeft $ \BigTriangleRight s \FilledSmallTriangleDown D \SmallTriangleRight ! \BigTriangleUp r \FilledSmallTriangleLeft A \SmallTriangleUp � \BigVBar t \FilledSmallTriangleRight � \SmallVBar 5 \Circle q \FilledSmallTriangleUp * \SpinDown � \Cross ' \FilledSquare ) \SpinUp � \DiamondShadowA � \FilledSquareShadowA 0 \Square � \DiamondShadowB � \FilledSquareShadowC 􀀀 \SquareShadowA � \DiamondShadowC c \FilledTriangleDown � \SquareShadowB 6 \Diamondshape b \FilledTriangleLeft � \SquareShadowC U \FilledBigCircle d \FilledTriangleRight 3 \TriangleDown V \FilledBigDiamondshape a \FilledTriangleUp 2 \TriangleLeft P \FilledBigSquare � \HBar 4 \TriangleRight S \FilledBigTriangleDown o \LowerDiamond 1 \TriangleUp R \FilledBigTriangleLeft ? \RightDiamond � \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give “u%”. Likewise, \Square and \Cross combine to give “�0”. See Section 7.2 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols. Table 194: bbding Geometric Shapes d \CircleShadow u \Rectangle j \SquareShadowTopLeft a \CircleSolid v \RectangleBold i \SquareShadowTopRight p \DiamondSolid t \RectangleThin g \SquareSolid b \Ellipse f \Square o \TriangleDown e \EllipseShadow k \SquareCastShadowBottomRight n \TriangleUp c \EllipseSolid m \SquareCastShadowTopLeft s \HalfCircleLeft l \SquareCastShadowTopRight r \HalfCircleRight h \SquareShadowBottomRight 57 Table 195: pifont Geometric Shapes l \ding{108} o \ding{111} r \ding{114} u \ding{117} y \ding{121} m \ding{109} p \ding{112} s \ding{115} w \ding{119} z \ding{122} n \ding{110} q \ding{113} t \ding{116} x \ding{120} Table 196: universa Geometric Shapes � \baucircle 􀀀 \bausquare � \bautriangle Table 197: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols ? \dbend ~ \lhdbend 􀀀 \reversedvideodbend Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines nondescending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend, and \textreversedvideodbend. Table 198: skull Symbols A \skull Table 199: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols O \rip Table 200: marvosym Information Symbols ® \Bicycle o \Football Z \Pointinghand V \Checkedbox x \Gentsroom w \Wheelchair U \Clocklogo I \Industry b \Writinghand K \Coffeecup i \Info X \Crossedbox y \Ladiesroom Table 201: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats O \anchor E \eye S \Sborder C \carriagereturn C \filledsquarewithdots B \squarewithdots D \checkmark I \satellitedish Z \Zborder 58 Table 202: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats � \Envelope � \Peace \PhoneHandset T \SunshineOpenCircled q \OrnamentDiamondSolid � \Phone � \Plane

\Tape

Table 203: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats % \ding{37} ( \ding{40} ¤ \ding{164} § \ding{167} « \ding{171} & \ding{38} ) \ding{41} ¥ \ding{165} ¨ \ding{168} © \ding{169} ' \ding{39} v \ding{118} ¦ \ding{166} ª \ding{170} 59 6 Other symbols The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. (Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing. Table 204: textcomp Genealogical Symbols b \textborn c \textdivorced m \textmarried d \textdied l \textleaf Table 205: wasysym General Symbols m \ataribox � \clock � \LEFTarrow , \smiley

\bell � \diameter � \lightning . \sun

- \blacksmiley L \DOWNarrow � \phone K \UParrow 1 \Bowtie / \frownie \pointer 5 \wasylozenge | \brokenvert � \invdiameter � \recorder � \checked 6 \kreuz � \RIGHTarrow Table 206: wasysym Circles

 \CIRCLE G# \LEFTcircle H# \RIGHTcircle ! \rightturn
  1. \Circle I \Leftcircle J \Rightcircle

G \LEFTCIRCLE H \RIGHTCIRCLE " \leftturn Table 207: wasysym Musical Symbols � \eighthnote

\halfnote � \twonotes � \fullnote � \quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 145 on page 46). ˇ=“=“ Table 208: harmony Musical Symbols \AAcht ss \Ds ‰ \Pu > \VM ˇ“( \Acht SS \DS ˇ“) \Sech ˇ“* \Zwdr ? \AcPa ¯ \Ganz @ \SePa A \ZwPa DD \DD < \GaPa < \UB DD/ \DDohne ˘“ \Halb ˇ“ \Vier D/ \Dohne < \HaPa > \ViPa The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony. 60 Table 209: harmony Musical Accents A a. aa. \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}� /A/a \Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}� A a . a a . \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} gAga \Umd{A}\Umd{a}� Alal \Kr{A}\Kr{a} � These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance. In addition to the accents shown above, \HH is a special accent command which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that “\HH.X.a.b.c.d.” produces “Xa bc d”. All arguments except the first can be omitted: “\HH.X.....” produces “X”. \Takt takes two arguments and composes them into a musical time signature. For example, “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 8 12”. As two special cases, “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R”. The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony. Table 210: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols � \manboldkidney � \manpenkidney $ \manconcentriccircles & \manquadrifolium % \manconcentricdiamond \manquartercircle # \mancone ' \manrotatedquadrifolium � \mancube " \manrotatedquartercircle y \manerrarrow � \manstar ! \manfilledquartercircle � \mantiltpennib � \manhpennib 7 \mantriangledown � \manimpossiblecube x \mantriangleright � \mankidney 6 \mantriangleup � \manlhpenkidney � \manvpennib Table 211: marvosym Navigation Symbols · \Forward » \MoveDown ´ \RewindToIndex ¼ \ToTop ¸ \ForwardToEnd º \MoveUp μ \RewindToStart ¹ \ForwardToIndex ¶ \Rewind ½ \ToBottom 61 Table 212: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø \AtForty Ü \Handwash Ô \ShortNinetyFive Ó \AtNinetyFive ¯ \IroningI Ö \ShortSixty Õ \AtSixty ° \IroningII Û \ShortThirty Ë \Bleech ± \IroningIII Ú \SpecialForty « \CleaningA Ì \NoBleech  \Tumbler ¾ \CleaningF ¨ \NoChemicalCleaning ‰ \WashCotton ¿ \CleaningFF ² \NoIroning Š \WashSynthetics ¬ \CleaningP  \NoTumbler ‹ \WashWool ­ \CleaningPP × \ShortFifty Ý \Dontwash Ù \ShortForty Table 213: Other marvosym Symbols ˆ \Ankh † \Cross OE \Heart © \Smiley ý \Bat F \FHBOlogo ÿ \MartinVogel þ \Womanface ¥ \Bouquet f \FHBOLOGO m \Mundus Y \Yinyang ‡ \Celtcross § \Frowny @ \MVAt ª \CircledA Ž \FullFHBO : \Rightarrow� � Standard LATEX2" defines \Rightarrow to display “)”, while marvosym redefines it to display “:” (or “:” in math mode). This conflict can be problematic for math symbols defined in terms of \Rightarrow, such as \Longleftrightarrow, which ends up looking like “(:”. Table 214: Miscellaneous universa Symbols � \bauforms � \bauhead Table 215: ifsym Weather Symbols � \Cloud � \Hail � \Sleet � \WeakRain \FilledCloud � \HalfSun � \Snow � \WeakRainCloud ! \FilledRainCloud � \Lightning � \SnowCloud $ \FilledSnowCloud # \FilledSunCloud � \NoSun � \Sun " \FilledWeakRainCloud � \Rain � \SunCloud � \Fog � \RainCloud � \ThinFog In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury: � � � �

Similarly, \wind{hsuni}{hanglei}{hstrengthi} will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0–4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0– 100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “􀀀0”, \wind{2}{0}{0} produces “�0”, and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “�:”. 62 Table 216: ifsym Alpine Symbols � \SummitSign � \Summit � \SurveySign � \HalfFilledHut � \StoneMan � \Mountain � \Joch � \VarSummit � \Hut � \IceMountain � \Flag � \FilledHut � \VarMountain � \VarFlag ��� \Village � \VarIceMountain � \Tent Table 217: ifsym Clocks ™ \Interval — \StopWatchStart › \VarClock š \Wecker ˜ \StopWatchEnd – \Taschenuhr ” \VarTaschenuhr ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{hhoursi}{hminutesi} outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, “\showclock{5}{40}” produces “D”. hhoursi must be an integer from 0 to 11, and hminutesi must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55. Table 218: Other ifsym Symbols � \FilledSectioningDiamond 􀀀 \Letter � \Radiation � \Fire � \PaperLandscape � \SectioningDiamond � \Irritant � \PaperPortrait ( \Telephone : \StrokeOne : \StrokeThree ; \StrokeFive : \StrokeTwo :: \StrokeFour In addition, \Cube{1}. . .\Cube{6} produce dice with the corresponding number of spots: � � � �

63 Table 219: skak Chess Informator Symbols g \bbetter d \doublepawns N \novelty R \various i \bdecisive L \ending F \onlymove f \wbetter b \betteris j \equal o \opposbishops h \wdecisive a \bishoppair P \etc r \passedpawn J \weakpt e \bupperhand H \file M \qside w \with I \centre O \kside s \samebishops A \withattack RR \comment x \markera l \see E \withidea n \compensation y \markerb q \seppawns C \withinit V \counterplay m \mate T \timelimit v \without t \devadvantage S \morepawns k \unclear c \wupperhand G \diagonal U \moreroom u \unitedpawns D \zugzwang The preceding symbols are merely the named informator symbol. skak can typeset many more chess-related symbols, including those for all of the pieces (KQRBNP/ kqrbnp), but only in the context of moves and boards, not as individual, named LATEX symbols. Table 220: metre Metrical Symbols × \a ¯˘¯˘´ \bBm \cc ˘¯ ˘¯ ´ \Mbb ˙˙˙˙ \Pppp

\t ˘´ \B ¯˘¯˘ \bbm \Ccc ˘¯ ˘¯¯ ˘¯˘ \mbbx ˙˙˙˙ \pppp \tsbm ˘ \b ¯˘´¯˘ \Bbm ¯ \m �� \oo ˙˙˙˙˙ \Ppppp \tsmb ˘´ ˘ \Bb ˘ ¯˘¯˘ \bbmb ¯ ´ \M ˙ \p ˙˙˙˙˙ \ppppp \tsmm ˘˘´ \BB ¯˘¯˘¯˘¯ \bbmx ׯ \ma ¯˙ \pm \ps ¯˙˙ \vppm ˘˘ \bb ¯˘ \bm ˘¯´ \Mb ˙˙ \pp ˙˙ \pxp ¯˙˙˙ \vpppm ˘˘´ \bB ¯˘´ \Bm ˘¯ \mb ˙˙ \Pp ˙˙ \Pxp ˙˙ ˙˙ \x × ˘˘ \bba \c ˘¯ ˘¯ ´ \mBb ¯˙˙ \ppm � \R ˘ ˘˘ \bbb \C ˘¯ ˘¯ ´ \mbB ˙˙˙ \ppp � \r ¯˘¯˘´ \BBm \Cc ˘¯ ˘¯ \mbb ˙˙˙ \Ppp

\T The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command. Table 221: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols ÷ \anaclasis ÷ \Anaclasis < \antidiple < \Antidiple <·· \antidiple* <·· \Antidiple* � \antisigma � \Antisigma ×·· \asteriscus ×·· \Asteriscus ^ \catalexis ^ \Catalexis > \diple > \Diple >·· \diple* >·· \Diple* \obelus \Obelus ·· \obelus* ·· \Obelus* � \respondens � \Respondens

\terminus 
\Terminus

� \terminus* � \Terminus* 64 Table 222: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk J \PHarrow e \PHeagle B \PHplumedHead h \PHbee o \PHflute d \PHram X \PHbeehive H \PHgaunlet l \PHrosette R \PHboomerang p \PHgrater P \PHsaw K \PHbow G \PHhelmet L \PHshield b \PHbullLeg a \PHhide Y \PHship D \PHcaptive Z \PHhorn V \PHsling S \PHcarpentryPlane Q \PHlid r \PHsmallAxe c \PHcat m \PHlily q \PHstrainer E \PHchild N \PHmanacles C \PHtattooedHead M \PHclub O \PHmattock I \PHtiara W \PHcolumn n \PHoxBack g \PHtunny U \PHcomb k \PHpapyrus j \PHvine T \PHdolium A \PHpedestrian s \PHwavyBand f \PHdove i \PHplaneTree F \PHwoman Table 223: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters a \Aaleph E \AAhe k \Akaph s \Asamekh R \AAresh A \AAaleph z \Azayin K \AAkaph p \Ape S \Ashin b \Abeth w \Avav l \Alamed P \AApe v \Ahelmet B \AAbeth H \Aheth L \AAlamed x \Asade V \AAhelmet g \Agimel h \AAheth m \Amem X \AAsade t \Atav d \Adaleth T \Ateth n \Anun q \Aqoph D \AAdaleth y \Ayod o \Aayin Q \AAqoph e \Ahe Y \AAyod O \AAayin r \Aresh The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above. In addition, single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the \textproto command (e.g., “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”). See the protosem documentation for more information. 65 Table 224: hieroglf Hieroglyphics A \HA I \HI n \Hn T \HT a \Ha i \Hi O \HO t \Ht B \HB ˝ \Hibl o \Ho ˘ \Htongue b \Hb ˆ \Hibp p \Hp U \HU c \Hc ¨ \Hibs P \HP u \Hu C \HC ˜ \Hibw ˙ \Hplural V \HV D \HD J \HJ + \Hplus v \Hv d \Hd j \Hj Q \HQ | \Hvbar ¸ \Hdual k \Hk q \Hq w \Hw e \He K \HK ? \Hquery W \HW E \HE L \HL R \HR X \HX f \Hf l \Hl r \Hr x \Hx F \HF m \Hm s \Hs Y \HY G \HG M \HM S \HS y \Hy g \Hg ˇ \Hman ¯ \Hscribe z \Hz h \Hh ´ \Hms / \Hslash Z \HZ H \HH N \HN ° \Hsv | \Hone 3 \Hhundred 5 \HXthousand 7 \Hmillion 2 \Hten 4 \Hthousand 6 \HCthousand The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg command (e.g., “\textpmhg{Pakin}” produces “Pakin”). See the hieroglf documentation for more information. Table 225: dictsym Dictionary Symbols a \dsaeronautical c \dscommercial m \dsmedical G \dsagricultural H \dsheraldical X \dsmilitary A \dsarchitectural J \dsjuridical R \dsrailways B \dsbiological L \dsliterary T \dstechnical C \dschemical M \dsmathematical 66 7 Additional Information Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 7 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides additional help in using the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. Next, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Then, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in LATEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself. 7.1 Symbol Name Clashes Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending on how the symbols are defined in each package, LATEX will either output an error message or replace an earlierdefined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 226 presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky, but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 226, not impossible. The general procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package. Examine the LATEX source for this document (symbols.tex)—especially the \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros and their subsequent usage—to see one possible way to handle symbol conflicts. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym, textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and LATEX2" itself. Similarly, mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. The txfonts, pxfonts, and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 226 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 227 on page 69 illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font, merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt} 7.2 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations: • The symbol isn’t intuitively named. As a few examples, the command to draw dice is “\Cube”; a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”; and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. • The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there’s some symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List, please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. • The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever. Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no LATEX binding for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a “¿” symbol, which may be useful for representing a carriage return, but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol. To produce an unnamed symbol, you need to switch to the font explicitly with LATEX2"’s low-level font commands [LAT00] and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font.3 In fact, \char is not strictly necesssary; the character can often be entered symbolically. For example, the symbol for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich 3pifont defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. For example, “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “¿”. 67 Table 226: Symbol Name Clashes Symbol LATEX2" AMS stmaryrd wasysym mathabx marvosym bbding ifsym dingbat wsuipa \baro � < \bigtriangledown 5 ` \bigtriangleup 4 a \checkmark X D \Circle # 5 \Cross † * � \ggg o Ï \Letter B 􀀀 \lightning � \Lightning E � \lll n Î \Rightarrow ) ñ : \Square � f 0 \Sun @ À � \TriangleDown o 3 \TriangleUp n 1 68 Table 227: Example of a Benign Name Clash Default txfonts Symbol (Computer Modern) (Times Roman) R R R \textrecipe “ “ group (“X”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding, for instance). While a sha can be defined numerically as “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH” ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”. Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp.text.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. As a last resort, these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. For example, \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (“ �”). The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations.4 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. For instance, if the phonetic package is available, then \textit{\riota} will yield a backend-independent “􀀀”. Similarly, tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“�”) may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox. Joining and overlapping existing symbols Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The LATEX2" source file fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 54 on page 26) is defined in that file with: \def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. \def is the TEX primitive upon which LATEX’s \newcommand is based. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general, arrows/harpoons, horizontal lines (“=”, “-”, “\relbar”, and “\Relbar”), and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of new symbols. Of course, new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. For instance, LATEX defines \hbar (“~”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu), followed by the letter “h”: \def\hbarTemplate:\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbarTemplate:\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b \def\dbarTemplate:\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d 4As an example, Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox. 69 (The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity.) \bbar and \dbar define “¯b” and “¯ d”, respectively. Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar; a −9mu kern would have produced the less-attractive “¯d” glyph. There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent which centers one mathematical symbol atop another. For example, one can define \dotcup (“[· ”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}} The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. That is, it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information. Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. \vcenter is conceptually similar to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in LATEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows. Also, it vertically centers the result on the math axis. (Many operators, such as “+” and “−” are also vertically centered on the math axis.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp.text.tex in March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence: \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}} The \threesim symbol, which vertically centers three \sim (“�”) symbols with 0.35 x-heights of space between them, is rendered as “��”. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. Without it, \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. Because of \vcenter, \threesim aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b �� c × d. The slashed package, although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation, in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. The default behavior is to overwrite a given character with “/”. For example, \slashed{D} produces “ / D”. However, the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator, relation, punctuation, etc., as will be discussed in Section 7.3), the overlapping symbol, horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbolrelative units, and the character to be overlapped. Consider, for example, the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment (“ - I”). This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}. In addition, \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts. See slashed’s documentation (located in slashed.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts, you may need to use TEX’s \mathchoice primitive. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions, based on whether the current math style is display, text, script, or scriptscript. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete description.) For example, the following LATEX code—posted to comp.text.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes a sub/superscriptable “?>” symbol out of \top and \bot (“>” and “?”): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} 70 The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. The code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% \!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ faq.) \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−R”), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed one (“=R”). The \Xint macro defined above can also be used to generate a wealth of new integrals: “�R” (\Xint\circlearrowright), “ R” (\Xint\circlearrowleft), “�R” (\Xint\subset), “1R” (\Xint\infty), and so forth. LATEX2" provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. \mathpalette invokes the first argument, passing it one of “\displaystyle”, “\textstyle”, “\scriptstyle”, or “\scriptscriptstyle”, followed by the second argument. \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e.g., to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“?”) to comp.text.tex in June 2000: \newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style, moves two math units to the right, and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp, again in the current math style. \rlap, which enables text overlap, is described on the following page. Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i.e., “p ”) as this helps visually distinguish expressions like “p3x ” from those like “p3x”. In March 2002, Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp.text.tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\,}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and “dimens”. Sometimes, however, amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts, as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“%.”) and \nwsearrow (“-&”):5 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}} 5Note that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams, then you should probably be using XY-pic. 71 \text resembles LATEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart, \rlap (“right overlap”), appear frequently when creating composite characters. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position, overlapping whatever text is already there. Similarly, \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. For example, “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “AB”. However, the result of the former is the width of “A”, and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{. . . } and \rlap{. . . } take up zero space. In a June 2002 post to comp.text.tex, Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines: \makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay} \def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce LATEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of LATEX’s \\). For example, the \topbot command defined on page 70 could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”. The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. Modifying LATEX-generated symbols Oftentimes, symbols composed in the LATEX2" source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. For example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 138 on page 44) out of three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively: \def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \p@ is a LATEX2" shortcut for “pt” or “1.0pt”. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@, \raise4\p@, and \raise\p@: \makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots command. Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as transliterations from non- Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX writes his name as “H`an Th´ˆe Th`anh”. The dblaccnt package enables LATEX to stack accents, as in “H\‘an Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). In addition, the wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting 72 one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}| \textsubdot{r}] produces “´¯r ˙ ”. See the wsuipa documentation for more information. The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces “ ? f ” and \accentset{e}{X} produces “ eX ”. \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces “ ˜ V ”. accents provides other accent-related features as well; see the documentation for more information. A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis symbols, taken from a May 2002 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau (June 2003): \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\m@th \makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \makeatother Table 228 showcases these accents. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works. The basic idea is that \downparenthfill, \upparenthfill, \downbracketfill, and \upbracketfill do all of the work; they output a left symbol (e.g., \braceld [“z”] for \downparenthfill), a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible, and a right symbol (e.g., \bracerd [“{”] for \downparenthfill). \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text, thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules. Table 228: Manually Composed Extensible Accents abc \overbracket{abc} z { abc \overparenthesis{abc} abc \underbracket{abc} |ab}c \underparenthesis{abc} A similar, but simpler example, stems from another comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau. The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible (just like LATEX’s \hrulefill command): \makeatletter 73 \def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility. Essentially, \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum available horizontal space. \equalsfill is intended to be used with LATEX’s \stackrel command, which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. Hence, “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}” produces “ a!” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X definition ======= Y ”. If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the “=” in the previous example—LATEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice. Consider the following code (also presented in a comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau) for typesetting annuities: \DeclareRobustCommand{\annu}[1]{_{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{1pt}% adjust these \setlength\arrayrulewidth{.2pt}% two settings \begin{array}[b]{@{}c|}\hline \\[\arraycolsep]% \scriptstyle #1% \end{array}% }} One can then use, e.g., “$A\annu{x:n}$” to produce “Ax:n ”. Creating new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. Fortunately, most, if not all, TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT, The METAFONTbook is essential reading. Nevertheless, the following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new LATEX symbol using METAFONT. Its primary purpose is to cover the LATEX-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”).6 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file, which specifies the design size and various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size; and a size-independent file, which draws characters in the given size. Figure 1 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10.mf. lightbulb10.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. light bulb then loads lightbulb.mf. Ideally, one should produce lightbulbhsizei.mf files for a variety of hsizeis. This is called “optical scaling”. It enables, for example, the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes, which looks much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”. When a lightbulbhsizei.mf file does not exist for a given size hsizei, the computer mechanically produces a wider, taller, thicker symbol: A vs. A vs. A vs. A vs. A vs. A vs. A 10 pt. 20 pt. 30 pt. 40 pt. 50 pt. 60 pt. 70 pt. lightbulb.mf, shown in Figure 2, draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10.mf. Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10.mf” and “lightbulb.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming scheme [Ber01]; the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts, which generally lack bold, italic, small-caps, slanted, and other such variants. 6I’m not a very good artist; you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb. 74 font identifier := "LightBulb10"; % Name the font. font size 10pt#; % Specify the design size. em# := 10pt#; % “M” width is 10 points. cap# := 7pt#; % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. sb# := 1/4pt#; % Leave this much space on the side of each character. o# := 1/16pt#; % Amount that curves overshoot borders. input lightbulb % Load the file that draws the actual glyph. Figure 1: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10.mf) mode setup; % Target a given printer. define pixels(em, cap, sb); % Convert to device-specific units. define corrected pixels(o); % Same, but add a device-specific fudge factor. %% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A” %% with width 1/2em#, height cap#, and depth 1pt#. beginchar("A", 1/2em#, cap#, 1pt#); "A light bulb"; pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt; % Use a pen with a small, circular tip. %% Define the points we need. top z1 = (w/2, h + o); % z1 is at the top of a circle. rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4, y4); % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side. bot z3 = (z1 − (0,w − sb − o)); % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. lft z4 = (sb − o, 1/2[y1, y3]); % z4 is on the left of the circle. path bulb; % Define a path for the bulb itself. bulb = z1 . . z2 . . z3 . . z4 . . cycle; % The bulb is a closed path. z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb; % z5 lies on the bulb, a little to the right of z3. z6 = (x5, 0); % z6 is at the bottom, directly under z5. z7 = (x8, 0); % z7 is at the bottom, directly under z8. z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb; % z8 lies on the bulb, a little to the left of z3. bot z67 = (1/2[x6, x7], pen bot − o − 1/8pt); % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. %% Draw the bulb and the base. draw bulb; % Draw the bulb proper. draw z5 - - z6 . . z67 . . z7 - - z8; % Draw the base of the bulb. %% Display key positions and points to help us debug. makegrid(0, sb,w/2,w − sb)(0,−1pt, y2, h); % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates. penlabels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 67, 7, 8); % Label control points for debugging. endchar; end Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf) 75 The code in Figures 1 and 2 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables, defining points, drawing lines and curves, and preparing to debug or finetune the output. Again, The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large, labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character. In fact, proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.mf, issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: prompt> mf lightbulb10.mf ( Produces lightbulb10.2602gf prompt> gftodvi lightbulb10.2602gf ( Produces lightbulb10.dvi You can then view lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. The result is shown in Figure 3. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 2 draws vertical lines at positions 0, sb, w/2, and w −sb and horizontal lines at positions 0, −1pt, y2, and h. Similarly, observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1, z2, . . . , z8 and z67, which lightbulb.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7. 1 2 3 4 5 7 67 6 8 Figure 3: Proof diagram of lightbulb10.mf Most, if not all, TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt> tex testfont This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 Now type a test command (\help for help):)

  • \table
  • \bye

[1] Output written on testfont.dvi (1 page, 1516 bytes). Transcript written on testfont.log. The resulting table, stored in testfont.dvi and illustrated in Figure 4, shows every character in the font. To understand how to read the table, note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by lightbulb10.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8). The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. LATEX2", however, needs more information before documents can use the font. First, we create a font-description file that tells LATEX2" how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. For symbol fonts, this mapping is fairly simple. Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one 76 Test of lightbulb10 on March 11, 2003 at 1127 ´0 ´1 ´2 ´3 ´4 ´5 ´6 ´7 ´10x A ˝4x ´11x ˝8 ˝9 ˝A ˝B ˝C ˝D ˝E ˝F Figure 4: Font table produced by testfont.tex variant: normal weight and non-italicized. The filename for a font-description file important; it must be of the form “hencodingihfamilyi.fd”, where hencodingi is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for symbol fonts) and hfamilyi is the name of the font family. For LightBulb10, let’s call this “bulb”. Figure 5 lists the contents of ubulb.fd. The document “LATEX2" Font Selection” [LAT00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail, but the gist of ubulb.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb font family and then to specify that a LATEX2" request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font series (as opposed to, e.g., bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to, e.g., italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size. \DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{} Figure 5: LATEX2" font-description file (ubulb.fd) The final step is to write a LATEX2" style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. Because we have only one symbol our style file, lightbulb.sty (Figure 6), is rather trivial. Note that instead of typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”, “\char"41”, or “\char’101” (respectively, decimal, hexadecimal, and octal character offsets into the font). For a simple, one-character symbol font such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb.fd into lightbulb.sty instead of maintaining two separate files. In either case, a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the \lightbulb symbol available. \newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}} Figure 6: LATEX2" style file (lightbulb.sty) METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. However, it is also possible, with the help of some external tools, to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT. 7.3 Math-mode spacing Terms such as “binary operators”, “relations”, and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use a symbol for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen, \mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced “3x+#” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ #”. Similarly, to create a dotted-union symbol (“˙[”) that spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin, just as \cup is. Contrast “$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A˙ [B”) with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ˙[ B”). See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing. 77 The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Tables 96 and 97 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 229 contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various, na¨ıve alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle subscripts properly. For example, “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp2P ” in text, but “max p2P ” as part of a displayed formula. Table 229: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols LATEX expression Output $r \sin \theta$ r sin � (best) $r sin \theta$ rsin� $r \mbox{sin} \theta$ rsin� $r \mathrm{sin} \theta$ rsin� The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts. With \DeclareMathOperator*, subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. This is useful for limit operators (e.g., \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e.g., \min). In contrast, \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator, as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.g., \log and \cos). Table 230 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($. . .$) and display style (\[. . .\]).7 Table 230: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \] \DeclareMathOperator newlogsymp2P newlogsymp2P \DeclareMathOperator* newlogsymp2P newlogsym p2P It is common to use a thin space (\,) between the words of a multiword operators, as in “\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}”. \liminf, \limsup, and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 97 utilize this spacing convention. 7.4 Bold mathematical symbols LATEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics. However, bold symbols are occasionally needed, for example when naming vectors. Any of the approaches described at http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. Table 231 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques. As the table illustrates, these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. italic), formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. normal), formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. normal), and spacing. 7Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. . .$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[. . .\]. 78 Table 231: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package Code Output none $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ � + b = 􀀀 ÷ D (no bold) none $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ � + b = 􀀀 ÷ D none \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ � + b = 􀀀 ÷ D amsbsy $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ �+b = 􀀀÷D (faked bold) amsbsy $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ � + b = 􀀀 ÷ D bm $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ �+b = 􀀀÷D fixmath $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ � + b = 􀀀 ÷ D 7.5 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference Table 232 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for LATEX2" typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical U.S. computer keyboard. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third column shows what the character looks like. The fourth column lists the LATEX2" command to typeset the character as a text character. And the fourth column lists the LATEX2" command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect). Table 232: LATEX2" ASCII Table Dec Hex Char Body text \texttt 33 21 ! ! ! 34 22 " \textquotedbl " 35 23 # \# \# 36 24 $ \$ \$ 37 25 % \% \% 38 26 & \& \& 39 27 ’ ’ ’ 40 28 ( ( ( 41 29 ) ) ) 42 2A * * * 43 2B + + + 44 2C , , , 45 2D - - - 46 2E . . . 47 2F / / / 48 30 0 0 0 49 31 1 1 1 50 32 2 2 2 ... ... ... ... ... 57 39 9 9 9 58 3A : : : 59 3B ; ; ; 60 3C < \textless < 61 3D = = = Dec Hex Char Body text \texttt 62 3E > \textgreater > 63 3F ? ? ? 64 40 @ @ @ 65 41 A A A 66 42 B B B 67 43 C C C ... ... ... ... ... 90 5A Z Z Z 91 5B [ [ [ 92 5C \ \textbackslash \char‘\\ 93 5D ] ] ] 94 5E ˆ \^{} \^{} 95 5F \_ \char‘\_ 96 60 ‘ ‘ ‘ 97 61 a a a 98 62 b b b 99 63 c c c ... ... ... ... ... 122 7A z z z 123 7B { \{ \char‘\{ 124 7C | \textbar | 125 7D } \} \char‘\} 126 7E ˜ \~{} \~{} The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 232: • “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding. 79 • The characters “<”, “>”, and “|” do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively, “¡”, “¿”, and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding.8 The following are some alternatives for typesetting “<”, “>”, and “|”: – Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 7). – Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 8, viz. \textless, \textgreater, and \textbar. – Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode, i.e., $<$, $>$, and $|$. Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater, i.e., “hfilenamei” instead of “<filename>”. • Although “/” does not require any special treatment, LATEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/” on one line and “decrease” on the next. • \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 54 on page 26), which produces a somewhat wide “�”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 36 on page 19), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “~” in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. • The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. • The IBM version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 166 on page 51. • To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 232, Table 233 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 232 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 233 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 233: • A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 18 on page 13 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron. • The commands in the “LATEX2"” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect). • Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “CP1252” (Code Page 1252). CP1252 adds codes in the range 128–159 (hexadecimal 80–9F), including characters such as dashes, daggers, and quotation marks. If there’s sufficient interest, a future version of the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List may include a CP1252 table. 8Donald Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts. 80 Table 233: LATEX2" Latin 1 Table Dec Hex Char LATEX2" 161 A1 ¡ !‘ 162 A2 ¢ \textcent (tc) 163 A3 £ \pounds 164 A4 ¤ \textcurrency (tc) 165 A5 ¥ \textyen (tc) 166 A6 ¦ \textbrokenbar (tc) 167 A7 § \S 168 A8 ¨ \textasciidieresis (tc) 169 A9 © \textcopyright 170 AA ª \textordfeminine 171 AB « \guillemotleft (T1) 172 AC ¬ \textlnot (tc) 173 AD - \- 174 AE ® \textregistered 175 AF ¯ \textasciimacron (tc) 176 B0 ° \textdegree (tc) 177 B1 ± \textpm (tc) 178 B2 ² \texttwosuperior (tc) 179 B3 ³ \textthreesuperior (tc) 180 B4 ´ \textasciiacute (tc) 181 B5 μ \textmu (tc) 182 B6 ¶ \P 183 B7 · \textperiodcentered 184 B8 ¸ \c{} 185 B9 ¹ \textonesuperior (tc) 186 BA º \textordmasculine 187 BB » \guillemotright 188 BC ¼ \textonequarter (tc) 189 BD ½ \textonehalf (tc) 190 BE ¾ \textthreequarters (tc) 191 BF ¿ ?‘ 192 C0 `A \‘{A} 193 C1 ´A \’{A} 194 C2 ˆA \^{A} 195 C3 ˜A \~{A} 196 C4 ¨A \"{A} 197 C5 °A \AA 198 C6 Æ \AE 199 C7 C¸ \c{C} 200 C8 `E \‘{E} 201 C9 ´E \’{E} 202 CA ˆE \^{E} 203 CB ¨E \"{E} 204 CC `I \‘{I} 205 CD ´I \’{I} 206 CE ˆI \^{I} 207 CF ¨I \"{I} 208 D0 Ð \DH (T1) Dec Hex Char LATEX2" 209 D1 ˜N \~{N} 210 D2 `O \‘{O} 211 D3 ´O \’{O} 212 D4 ˆO \^{O} 213 D5 ˜O \~{O} 214 D6 ¨O \"{O} 215 D7 × \texttimes (tc) 216 D8 Ø \O 217 D9 `U \‘{U} 218 DA ´U \’{U} 219 DB ˆU \^{U} 220 DC ¨U \"{U} 221 DD ´Y \’{Y} 222 DE Þ \TH (T1) 223 DF ß \ss 224 E0 `a \‘{a} 225 E1 ´a \’{a} 226 E2 ˆa \^{a} 227 E3 ˜a \~{a} 228 E4 ¨a \"{a} 229 E5 °a \aa 230 E6 æ \ae 231 E7 ¸c \c{c} 232 E8 `e \‘{e} 233 E9 ´e \’{e} 234 EA ˆe \^{e} 235 EB ¨e \"{e} 236 EC `ı \‘{ı} 237 ED ´ı \’{ı} 238 EE ˆı \^{ı} 239 EF ¨ı \"{ı} 240 F0 ð \dh (T1) 241 F1 ˜n \~{n} 242 F2 `o \‘{o} 243 F3 ´o \’{o} 244 F4 ˆo \^{o} 245 F5 ˜o \~{o} 246 F6 ¨o \"{o} 247 F7 ÷ \textdiv (tc) 248 F8 ø \o 249 F9 `u \‘{u} 250 FA ´u \’{u} 251 FB ˆu \^{u} 252 FC ¨u \"{u} 253 FD ´y \’{y} 254 FE þ \th (T1) 255 FF ¨y \"{y} 81 • The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with LATEX’s default handling of this double-mapping is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use \pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 7) or use the textcomp package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding. • Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of a line. While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities and their LATEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters presented there make use of isoent, a LATEX2" package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the missing ISO glyphs using the LATEX picture environment.9 7.6 About this document History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained all of the native LATEX symbols (Tables 39, 47, 54, 79, 96, 98, 113, 114, 122, 126, 145, and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Tables 40, 55, 56, 82, 83, 99, 103, 109, and 146) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 151) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Tables 41, 49, 57, 85, 93, and 110). In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, “The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List”, includes the following new features: • the addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new symbols • the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and technology symbols, dingbats, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly document structure • an index, table of contents, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly locate symbols • symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order • appendices to provide additional information relevant to using symbols in LATEX • tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David’s original version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat. Build characteristics Table 234 on the following page lists some of this document’s build characteristics. Most important is the list of packages that LATEX couldn’t find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 235 shows the package date (specified in the .sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 234 or 235. 9isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true” characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size. 82 Table 234: Document Characteristics Characteristic Value Source file: symbols.tex Build date: September 22, 2005 Symbols documented: 3300 Packages included: textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns empheq phaistos arcs t5 t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs zapfchan bbold mbboard dsfont bbm Packages omitted: none 7.7 Copyright and license The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Copyright © 2005, Scott Pakin This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the LATEX Project Public License, either version 1.3 of this license or (at your option) any later version. The latest version of this license is in http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt and version 1.3 or later is part of all distributions of LATEX version 2003/12/01 or later. This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”. The Current Maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin. This work consists of the files symbols.tex, README, SYMLIST, lightbulb10.mf, and lightbulb.mf, lightbulb.map, and all PDF, PostScript, Encapsulated PostScript, and PostScript font files derived from those. 83 Table 235: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name Date textcomp 2000/08/30 latexsym 1998/08/17 amssymb 1996/11/03 stmaryrd 1994/03/03 euscript 1995/01/06 wasysym 2003/10/30 pifont 2000/01/12 manfnt 1999/07/01 bbding 1999/04/15 undertilde 2000/08/08 ifsym 2000/04/18 tipa 2002/08/08 tipx 2003/01/01 wsuipa 1994/07/16 metre 2001/12/05 txfonts 2000/12/15 skak 2003/01/25 dingbat 2001/04/27 skull 2002/01/23 eurosym 1998/08/06 yfonts 2003/01/08 mathdots 2001/02/28 trsym 2000/06/25 universa 98/08/01 upgreek 2003/02/12 chemarr 2001/06/22 empheq 2004/04/14 phaistos 2004/04/23 arcs 2004/05/09 t4phonet 2004/06/01 semtrans 1998/02/10 dictsym 2004/07/26 extarrows 2002/03/30 protosem 2005/03/18 harmony 2005/05/10 hieroglf 2000/09/23 cclicenses 2005/05/20 accents 2000/08/06 nicefrac 1998/08/04 bm 1999/07/05 84 References [AMS99] American Mathematical Society. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2.0), December 13, 1999. Available from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc.pdf. [Ber01] Karl Berry. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts, June 2001. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/info/fontname. [Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for LATEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http:// www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html. [Gib97] Jeremy Gibbons. Hey—it works! TUGboat, 18(2):75–78, June 1997. Available from http:// www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works.pdf. [Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth. The METAFONTbook, volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. LATEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [LAT98] LATEX3 Project Team. A new math accent. LATEX News. Issue 9, June 1998. Available from http:// www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions). [LAT00] LATEX3 Project Team. LATEX2" font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distributions). 85 Index If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a black box, e.g., “ ´a ” for “\’”. Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.10 Symbols \" (¨a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \# (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 79 \$ ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 79 \% (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 79 \& (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 79 \’ (´a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ( (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

  • (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

\, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \- (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82 \. ( ˙a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 / (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 [ ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 ] (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \^ (ˆa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \^{} (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \| (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \| (¿a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \= (¯a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \={} (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 | (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \_ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 80 \{ ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 38, 80 \} (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 38, 80 \‘ (`a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \~ (˜a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \~{} (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 A a (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \a (× ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \AA (°A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \aa (°a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAcht (ˇ=“=“) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 absolute value . . see \lvert and \rvert abz¨uglich . . see \textdiscount \AC (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 accents 13–17, 40, 41, 43, 44, 51, 61, 72–73 any character as . . . . . . . 73 extensible . . . . . 41–44, 73 multiple per character . . 72 accents (package) . . . . 73, 83, 84 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Acht (ˇ“() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ACK (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \AcPa (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \acutus (a´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \adots ( . .. ) . . . . . . . . . . 45, 72 advancing . . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \agemO (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \aleph (@) . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 46 \Alif (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \alpha (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Greek . . . . . . . . 35, 36, 48 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . 36, 48 hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . . 66 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 10–13 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . . 65 Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \alphaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \amalg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS 7, 9, 21, 23, 26, 27, 29–33, 35–37, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 48, 67, 82 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . . . 79 amsfonts (package) 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 48 amsmath (package) . . . 7, 35, 78 amssymb (package) 7, 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 48, 83, 84, 86 amstext (package) . . . . . . 70, 71 \Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \anchor (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \angle (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \angle (6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 46 \Anglesign (W) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 °Angstr¨om unit math mode . see \mathring text mode . . . . . . . see \AA \Angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 angular minutes . . . . see \prime angular seconds . . . . see \second \Angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \annu ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 annuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Antidiple* (<·· ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \antidiple* (<·· ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Antisigma (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \antisigma (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 10This occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example. 86 \APLbox (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLcirc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLcomment (?) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLdown (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLdownarrowbox (o) . . . . . 51 \APLinput (}) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLinv (÷~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLleftarrowbox (p) . . . . . 51 \APLlog (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLnot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLrightarrowbox (q) . . . . . 51 \APLstar (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLup (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \APLuparrowbox (n) . . . . . . . 51 \APLvert ( |) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \apprge (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \apprle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approx (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \approxeq (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \aquarius (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \AR (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ar (package) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 83 \arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . . 35 arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime arcs (package) . . . . . . 16, 83, 84 arcseconds . . . . . . . . see \second \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Aries (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \aries (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ArrowBoldDownRight (y) . . 53 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ({) 53 \ArrowBoldRightShort (z) . . . 53 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe (w) . 53 \ArrowBoldUpRight (x) . . . . 53 \Arrownot (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \arrownot (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 arrows . . . . . . . . . 32–34, 53, 67 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 41 double-headed, diagonal 71– 72 extensible . . . . . . . . 41–44 negated . . . . . . . . . . 32, 33 \Arrowvert (ww) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \arrowvert (??) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Arseneau, Donald . . . . . . 71–74 \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ASCII . . . . . . 7, 9, 51, 79–80, 82 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 ascii (package) . . . . . . 51, 80, 83 \ascnode (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ast (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ast (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Asteriscus (×··) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \asteriscus (×··) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Asterisk (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Asterisk (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \asterisk (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \AsteriskBold (A) . . . . . . . . 56 \AsteriskCenterOpen (B) . . . 56 \AsteriskRoundedEnds (X) . . 56 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 56 \AsteriskThin (C) . . . . . . . . 56 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen (D) 56 astrological symbols . . . . . . . . 50 astronomical symbols . . . . . . . 50 \astrosun (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \asymp (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \atan (atan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \ataribox (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \AtForty (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \AtNinetyFive (Ó) . . . . . . . 62 atomic math objects . . . . 35, 78 \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \autoleftarrow (DGGGGG) . . . . 43 \autoleftrightharpoons (EGGGGGGGGCGG) . . . . . . . . . 43 \autorightarrow (GGGGGA) . . . 43 \autorightleftharpoons (FGGGGGGGGBGG) . . . . . . . . . 43 \Avav (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Ayn (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Ayod (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Azayin (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \B (˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 b (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \b (a ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \b (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \babygamma (!) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \backepsilon (?) . . . . . . . . . 26 \backprime (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \backsim (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \backsimeq (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \backslash (\) . . . . . . . . 38, 46 banana brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \barb (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \bard (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \bari (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barin (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barl (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barlambda (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barleftharpoon (Þ) . . . . . . 34 \baro (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \baro (� vs. <) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \baro (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barp (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 barred letters . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \barrightharpoon (ß) . . . . . 34 \barsci (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barscu (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \baru (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barwedge (X) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \barwedge (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Bat (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \baucircle (�) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \bauforms (�) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \bauhead (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \bausquare (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \bautriangle (�) . . . . . . . . . 58 \BB (˘˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Bb (˘´˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bB (˘˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bb (˘˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bba (× ˘˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbalpha (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbar (¯b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \bbb (˘ ˘˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbbeta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Bbbk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 bbding (package) . 53–57, 59, 68, 83, 84 \bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . 48 \BBm (¯˘¯˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Bbm (¯˘´¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bBm (¯˘¯˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 bbm (package) . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 \bbm (¯˘¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbmb (˘ ¯˘¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbmx (¯˘¯˘¯˘¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bbnabla (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 bbold (package) . . . . . . . . 48, 83 87 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bdecisive (i) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Beam (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Bearing (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \because (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \BEL (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \bell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Berry, Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \beta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \betaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \beth (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \betteris (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \between (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bibridge ( ”a ”) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \Bicycle (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \bigast (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigbox (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigboxasterisk (Ö) . . . . . . 24 \bigboxbackslash (Þ) . . . . . 24 \bigboxbot (Û) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxcirc (Õ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxcoasterisk (×) . . . . 24 \bigboxdiv (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxdot (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxleft (Ø) . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxminus (Ñ) . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxplus (Ð) . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxright (Ù) . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxslash (Ý) . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxtimes (Ò) . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxtop (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigboxtriangleup (ß) . . . . 24 \bigboxvoid (Ü) . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigcap (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \BigCircle (%) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \bigcoast (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigcomplementop (’) . . . . . . 24 \BigCross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \bigcup (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigcurlyvee (œ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigcurlyvee (b) . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigcurlywedge (›) . . . . . . . 24 \bigcurlywedge (c) . . . . . . . 23 \BigDiamondshape (&) . . . . . 57 \BigHBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \biginterleave (g) . . . . . . . 23 \BigLowerDiamond (_) . . . . . 57 \bignplus (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigoasterisk (Æ) . . . . . . . . 24 \bigobackslash (Î) . . . . . . . 24 \bigobot (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigocirc (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigocoasterisk (Ç) . . . . . . 24 \bigodiv (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigodot (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigoleft (È) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigominus (Á) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigoplus (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigoright (É) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigoslash (Í) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigotimes (N) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigotop (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigotriangleup (Ï) . . . . . . 24 \bigovoid (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigparallel (f) . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigplus () . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \BigRightDiamond (/) . . . . . 57 \bigsqcap (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigsqcap (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigsqcapplus (�) . . . . . . . . 25 \bigsqcup (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigsqcupplus (�) . . . . . . . . 25 \BigSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \bigsquplus (˜) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \bigstar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigstar (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \bigtimes (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \BigTriangleDown (#) . . . . . 57 \bigtriangledown (`) . . . . . 23 \bigtriangledown (5 vs. `) . 68 \bigtriangledown (5) . . . . . 20 \BigTriangleLeft (") . . . . . 57 \BigTriangleRight ($) . . . . 57 \BigTriangleUp (!) . . . . . . . 57 \bigtriangleup (a) . . . . . . . 23 \bigtriangleup (4 vs. a) . . 68 \bigtriangleup (4) . . . . . . . 20 \biguplus (U) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigvarstar (�) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BigVBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \bigvee (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigwedge (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \binampersand (N) . . . . . . . . 21 binary operators . . . . . . . 20–22 binary relations . . . . . . . . 26–31 negated . . . . . . . . . . 27, 28 \bindnasrepma (O) . . . . . . . . 21 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . . 52 biological symbols . . . . . . . . . 52 bishop . . . . . . . see chess symbols \bishoppair (a) . . . . . . . . . 64 blackboard bold . see alphabets, math \blackdiamond (�) . . . . . . . . 22 \blacklozenge (�) . . . . . . . . 46 \blacksmiley (-) . . . . . . . . . 60 \blacksquare (�) . . . . . . . . . 46 \blacktriangle (N) . . . . . . . 46 \blacktriangledown () . . . . 22 \blacktriangledown (H) . . . . 46 \blacktriangleleft (ž) . . . . 22 \blacktriangleleft (J) . . . . 31 \blacktriangleright (Ÿ) . . . 22 \blacktriangleright (I) . . . 31 \blacktriangleup (œ) . . . . . . 22 blank . . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 34 \blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \blitzc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \blitzd (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \blitze ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Bm (¯˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 bm (package) . . . . . . . 79, 83, 84 \bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bm (¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \bmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 body-text symbols . . . . . . . 8–19 bold symbols . . . . . . . . . . 78–79 \boldmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 born . . . . . . . . . . see \textborn \bot (?) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 36, 70 \botdoteq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Bowtie (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \bowtie (./) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Box (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Box (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \boxast (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbar (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbox (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxbslash (j) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxcircle (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . 22 \boxdiv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxdot (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxdotLeft (‹) . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxdotleft (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxdotRight (Š) . . . . . . . . 33 \boxdotright (‚) . . . . . . . . 33 \boxempty (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxLeft (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxleft () . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxminus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxminus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxplus (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxplus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxRight (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxright (€) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 88 \boxslash (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxtimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxtimes (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . . 22 \boxvoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boy (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \braceld (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \bracerd ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \bracevert (>>>>) . . . . . . . . . . 38 brackets . . . . . . . see delimiters braket (package) . . . . . . . . . . 38 breve . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \breve (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \breve (a˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \brokenvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Bronger, Torsten . . . . . . . . . . 70 \BS (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \bullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 bullseye . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \bumpedeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Bumpeq (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bumpeq (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bupperhand (e) . . . . . . . . . . 64 C \C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 c (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \c (¸a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 81 \c ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \CAN (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \cancer (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Cap (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \cap (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \cap (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \capricornus (d) . . . . . . . . . 50 card suits . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 59 cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^ Carlisle, David . . . . . . . . . 1, 82 carriage return 51, 58, 67, see also \hookleftarrow \carriagereturn (C) . . . . . . 58 castle . . . . . . . see chess symbols \Catalexis (^) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \catalexis (^) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 catamorphism see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \Cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \cc ( CC

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

\cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \ccby ( BY:

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

\Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 cclicenses (package) . . 18, 83, 84 \ccnc ( $ \

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

\ccnd ( =

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

\ccsa ( C ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \cdot (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 70 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Cedi . . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \celsius (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Celtcross (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \centerdot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 cents . . . . . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . . . 28 \char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 67 \check (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 check marks . . . . . . . . . . 55, 58 \checked (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \CheckedBox (2�) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \Checkmark (!) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \checkmark (X) . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \checkmark (X vs. D) . . . . . . 68 \checkmark (D) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \CheckmarkBold (") . . . . . . . 55 chemarr (package) . . . 42, 83, 84 chemarrow (package) . 34, 43, 83 \chemarrow (A) . . . . . . . . . . 34 chess symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \chi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \chiup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \circ (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 47 \circeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \circeq ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Circle (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Circle (# vs. 5) . . . . . . . . 68 \Circle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . . 33 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . . 32 \circlearrowright (÷) . . . . . 33 \circlearrowright (�) . . . . . 32 circled numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \CircledA (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \circledast (~) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledbar (V) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledbslash (W) . . . . . . . 21 \circledcirc (}) . . . . . . . . . 21 \circleddash (?) . . . . . . . . . 21 \circleddot . . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft (”) . . . . . 33 \circleddotright (“) . . . . . 33 \circledgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \circledless (R) . . . . . . . . . 27 \circledminus . . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \circledR (r) . . . . . . . . . 9, 37 \circledS (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \circledslash . . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . . see \otimes \circledvee (U) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledwedge (T) . . . . . . . . 21 \circleleft (’) . . . . . . . . . 33 \circleright (‘) . . . . . . . . 33 circles . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 58, 60 \CircleShadow (d) . . . . . . . . 57 \CircleSolid (a) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Circpipe (›) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \circplus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Circsteel (•) . . . . . . . . . . 52 circumflex . . . . . . . . see accents \circumflexus (a˜) . . . . . . . . 16 \CleaningA («) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \CleaningPP (­) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \clickb (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clickc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clickt (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clock (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 clock symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \closedniomega (?) . . . . . . . 12 \closedrevepsilon (�) . . . . . 12 \Cloud (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 59 \clubsuit (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \coAsterisk (�) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \coasterisk (�) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \Colonapprox (�) . . . . . . . . 27 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \Coloneq (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \coloneq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \coloneq (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Coloneqq (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \coloneqq (B) . . . . . . . . 20, 27 \Colonsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \colonsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \comment (RR) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 communication symbols . . . . . 51 89 comp.text.tex (newsgroup) 7, 20, 69–74 \compensation (n) . . . . . . . . 64 \complement (A) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \complement ({) . . . . . . . . . . 37 complex numbers (C) . . . . . see alphabets, math Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . . . . . . 1, 7, 41, 48, 82 computer hardware symbols . . 51 \ComputerMouse (Í) . . . . . . . . 51 \cong (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 conjunction . . . . . . . see \wedge \conjunction (V) . . . . . . . . . 50 contradiction symbols . . . 20, 34 control characters . . . . . . . . . 51 \convolution ( ) . . . . . . . . . 22 \coprod (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 copyright . . . . . . . . . . 8, 18, 81 \copyright (©) . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \corner (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . . 45 \corresponds (�) . . . . . . . . . 28 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 \cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \coth (coth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . . 64 Courier (PostScript font) . . . . 18 CP1252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \CR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Creative Commons licenses . . 18 \Cross (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Cross († vs. * vs. �) . . . . . . 68 \Cross (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Cross (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \crossb (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \CrossBoldOutline (-) . . . . . 54 \CrossClowerTips (4) . . . . . 54 \crossd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . . 58 crosses . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 55, 62 \crossh (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \CrossMaltese (.) . . . . . . . . 54 \crossnilambda (3) . . . . . . . 12 \CrossOpenShadow (+) . . . . . . 54 \CrossOutline (,) . . . . . . . . 54 \crtilde (R˜a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . 54, 55, 62 \Crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 CTAN . see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 67 cube root . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \cup (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \cup ([) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 70, 77 \curlyc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . . . 28 \curlyeqprec (2) . . . . . . . . . 26 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . . . . . . . 28 \curlyeqsucc (3) . . . . . . . . . 26 \curlyesh (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyvee (O) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyvee (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \curlyveedownarrow (.) . . . . 21 \curlyveeuparrow (/) . . . . . . 21 \curlywedge (N) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlywedge (f) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \curlywedgedownarrow (') . . 21 \curlywedgeuparrow (&) . . . . 21 \curlyyogh (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyz (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 currency symbols . . . . 17, 18, 48 \curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . . 33 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ) 33 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . . 33 \curvearrowleft (ð) . . . . . . 33 \curvearrowleft (x) . . . . . . 32 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . . 33 \curvearrowright (ñ) . . . . . 33 \curvearrowright (y) . . . . . 32 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Cutline (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 cutoff subtraction . . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D \D (a ¨ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 d (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \d (a. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \dag (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dagger (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \daleth (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 dangerous bend symbols . . . . 58 \dasharrow see \dashrightarrow \dashint (−R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \dashleftarrow (c) . . . . . . . 32 \dashleftrightarrow (e) . . . 33 \dashrightarrow (d) . . . . . . 32 \DashV ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Dashv ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \dashv (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \dashVv (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \davidsstar (C) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \DavidStar (0) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \DavidStarSolid (/) . . . . . . 56 \dbar (¯ d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \dbend (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 dblaccnt (package) . . . . . . . . . 72 \DCa (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \DCb (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \DCc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \DCd (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \DD (DD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ddag (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ddagger (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ddashint (=R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ddddot ( .... ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \dddot ( ... ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \DDohne (DD/ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ddot (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \ddots ( . . .) . . . . . . . . . . 44, 72 \DeclareFontFamily . . . . . . . 77 \DeclareFontShape . . . . . . . . 77 \DeclareMathOperator . . . . . 78 \DeclareMathOperator* . . . . 78 \declareslashed . . . . . . . . . 70 definite-description operator ( �) 69 definition symbols . . . . . . 20, 74 \deg (deg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \degree (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \degree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 degrees . . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Deleatur . . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . 37–40 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . . 40 variable-sized . . . . . . 38–40 \Delta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \delta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \deltaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Denarius (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \dental (ag) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 derivitive, partial . . see \partial \descnode (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \det (det) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . . 64 \Dfourier ( . c) . . . . . . . . . 29 \dfourier ( c. ) . . . . . . . . . 29 \DFT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \dft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \DH (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \DH ( D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \dh (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \dh (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 diacritics . . . . . . . . . see accents \diaeresis (a¨) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 diæresis . . . . . . . . . see accents \diagdown (å) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diagdown (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diagonal (G) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \diagup (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diagup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diameter (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diameter (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \diameter (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 90 \Diamond (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Diamond (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \diamond (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Diamondblack (_) . . . . . . . . 46 \Diamonddot () . . . . . . . . . . 46 \DiamonddotLeft () . . . . . 33 \Diamonddotleft (‡) . . . . . 33 \DiamonddotRight (Ž) . . . . . 33 \Diamonddotright (†) . . . . . 33 \DiamondLeft () . . . . . . . . 33 \Diamondleft (…) . . . . . . . . 33 \DiamondRight (Œ) . . . . . . . 33 \Diamondright („) . . . . . . . 33 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 58 diamonds (suit) . . . . . . . . 46, 59 \DiamondShadowA (�) . . . . . . 57 \DiamondShadowB (�) . . . . . . 57 \DiamondShadowC (�) . . . . . . 57 \Diamondshape (6) . . . . . . . . 57 \DiamondSolid (p) . . . . . . . . 57 \diamondsuit (}) . . . . . . . . . 46 \diatop . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 72 \diaunder . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 72 dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 67 dictionary symbols . . . 10–13, 66 dictsym (package) . . . 66, 83, 84 died . . . . . . . . . . see \textdied differential, inexact . . see \dbar \digamma (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 circled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 segmented . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \dim (dim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ding . . . . . . . 10, 53–56, 58, 59 dingautolist . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 dingbat (package) . 54, 58, 68, 83, 84 dingbat symbols . . . . . . . 53–59 \Diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 discount . . . see \textdiscount discretionary hyphen . . . . . . . 82 disjunction . . . . . . . . . see \vee \displaystyle . . . 70, 71, 73, 78 ditto marks . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \divdot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \divideontimes (�) . . . . . . . 22 \divideontimes (>) . . . . . . . 21 \divides (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 41 non-commutative . . . . . . 44 division times see \divideontimes divorced . . . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \dj (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \dlbari (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \DLE (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \dlsh (ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 does not divide . . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . . see \nexists \Dohne (D/ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 dollar . . . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . . . . . . . . . . . . see \$ \Dontwash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \dot ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 dot symbols . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 \dotcup ([· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \dotdiv (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Doteq . . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \doteq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \doteqdot (+) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 dotless i (ı) math mode . . . . . . . 40, 46 text mode . . . . . . . . . . . 13 dotless j (|) math mode . . . . . . . 40, 46 text mode . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \dotplus (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dotplus (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \dots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 dots (ellipses) . . . . . 8, 44–46, 72 \dotsb (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \dotsc (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \dotseq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \dotsi (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \dotsint (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \dotsm (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \dotso (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 dotted union ([˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . 77 \dottedtilde (..˜a) . . . . . . . . . 15 \dottimes (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \double . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \doublebarwedge (Z) . . . . . . 22 \doublebarwedge ([) . . . . . . . 21 \doublecap . . . . . . . . . see \Cap \doublecap (\) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \doublecup . . . . . . . . . see \Cup \doublecup (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \doublepawns (d) . . . . . . . . . 64 \doubletilde (˜˜a) . . . . . . . . . 15 \DOWNarrow (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Downarrow (+) . . . . . . . . 32, 38 \downarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \downarrow (#) . . . . . . . . 32, 38 \downbracketfill . . . . . . . . . 73 \downdownarrows (Ó) . . . . . . 33 \downdownarrows (�) . . . . . . 32 \downdownharpoons (Û) . . . . . 34 Downes, Michael J. . . . . . 35, 85 \downharpoonleft (å) . . . . . . 34 \downharpoonleft (�) . . . . . . 33 \downharpoonright (ç) . . . . . 34 \downharpoonright (�) . . . . . 33 \downp (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \downparenthfill . . . . . . . . . 73 \downt (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \downtouparrow (ÿ) . . . . . . . 33 \downuparrows (×) . . . . . . . . 33 \downupharpoons (ë) . . . . . . . 34 \drsh (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \DS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Ds (ss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \dsaeronautical (a) . . . . . . 66 \dsagricultural (G) . . . . . . 66 \dsarchitectural (A) . . . . . 66 \dsbiological (B) . . . . . . . . 66 \dschemical (C) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \dscommercial (c) . . . . . . . . 66 dsfont (package) . . . . . . . 48, 83 \dsheraldical (H) . . . . . . . . 66 \dsjuridical (J) . . . . . . . . . 66 \dsliterary (L) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \dsmathematical (M) . . . . . . . 66 \dsmedical (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \dsmilitary (X) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \dsrailways (R) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \dstechnical (T) . . . . . . . . . 66 DVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 76 \dz (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 E e (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \e (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 "-TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Earth (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Earth (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \earth (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ecommerce () . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EightAsterisk (Z) . . . . . . . 56 \EightFlowerPetal (S) . . . . 56 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved (Y) . . . . . . . . . 56 \eighthnote (�) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \EightStar (H) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \EightStarBold (I) . . . . . . . 56 \EightStarConvex (F) . . . . . 56 \EightStarTaper (E) . . . . . . 56 \ejective (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 49 electromotive force (E) . . . . . see alphabets, math \ell (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Ellipse (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 ellipses (dots) . . . . . 8, 44–46, 72 ellipses (ovals) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \EllipseShadow (e) . . . . . . . 57 91 \EllipseSolid (c) . . . . . . . . 57 \EM (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \emgma (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 empheq (package) . . . 42, 83, 84 \emptyset (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 end of proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \ending (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \eng (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 engineering symbols . . . . . 49, 52 \engma (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \ENQ (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 entails . . . . . . . . . . . see \models enter . . . . . . . see carriage return \Envelope (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \enya (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \EOT (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \epsi (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \epsilon (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \epsilonup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \eqbumped (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \eqcirc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \eqcirc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Eqcolon (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \eqcolon (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \eqcolon (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Eqqcolon (G) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \eqqcolon (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \eqsim (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \eqslantgtr (·) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqslantgtr (1) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \eqslantless (¶) . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqslantless (0) . . . . . . . . . 30 \equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \equalsfill . . . . . . . . . . 20, 74 equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 26 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \equiv, \leftrightarrow, and \threesim \er (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 es-zet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \ESC (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 escapable characters . . . . . . . . 8 \esh (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \esh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 esint (package) . . . . . . . . . 26, 83 \Estatically (J) . . . . . . . . . 52 estimated . . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . . . 43, 83 \eta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \etaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ETB (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \etc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \eth (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \eth (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \eth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \ETX (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 eufrak (package) . . . . . . . . . . 48 Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \EUR (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURcr (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURdig (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \euro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 euro signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 blackboard bold . . . . . . . 48 eurosym (package) . . . 18, 83, 84 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 euscript (package) . . . 48, 83, 84 evaluated at (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \exists (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \exists (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . . 52 extarrows (package) . . 44, 83, 84 extensible accents . . . 41–44, 73 extensible arrows . . . . . . . 41–44 extensible tildes . . . . . . . . 41, 44 extension characters . . . . . . . 34 extraipa (package) . . . . . . 15, 83 \eye (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 18 F f (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \fallingdotseq (�) . . . . . . . 28 \fallingdotseq (;) . . . . . . . 26 \FallingEdge (!) . . . . . . . . . 49 \fatbslash ()) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \fatsemi (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \fatslash () . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . . 51 fc (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . . . 83 feet . . . . . . . . . . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \female (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \FemaleFemale („) . . . . . . . . 52 \FemaleMale (…) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Ferli (aa. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \Fermi (a a. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Feynman slashed character notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \FF (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \file (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \FilledBigCircle (U) . . . . . 57 \FilledBigDiamondshape (V) 57 \FilledBigSquare (P) . . . . . 57 \FilledBigTriangleDown (S) 57 \FilledBigTriangleLeft (R) 57 \FilledBigTriangleRight (T) 57 \FilledBigTriangleUp (Q) . . 57 \FilledCircle (e) . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 62 \FilledDiamondShadowA (�) . 57 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) . 57 \FilledDiamondshape (f) . . . 57 \FilledHut (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \FilledRainCloud (!) . . . . . 62 \FilledSectioningDiamond (�) . . . . . . . . . 63 \FilledSmallCircle (u) . . . 57 \FilledSmallDiamondshape (v) . . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledSmallSquare (p) . . . 57 \FilledSmallTriangleDown (s) . . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft (r) . . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledSmallTriangleRight (t) . . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledSmallTriangleUp (q) 57 \FilledSnowCloud ($) . . . . . 62 \FilledSquare (') . . . . . . . . 57 \FilledSquareShadowA (�) . . 57 \FilledSquareShadowC (�) . . 57 \filledsquarewithdots (C) . 58 \FilledSunCloud (#) . . . . . . 62 \FilledTriangleDown (c) . . . 57 \FilledTriangleLeft (b) . . . 57 \FilledTriangleRight (d) . . 57 \FilledTriangleUp (a) . . . . 57 \FilledWeakRainCloud (") . . 62 \finpartvoice (ˇa» ) . . . . . . . . 15 \finpartvoiceless (°a» ) . . . . . 15 \fint (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \fint (ffl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Finv (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Finv (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Fire (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 fish hook . . . . . . . see \strictif \FiveFlowerOpen (R) . . . . . . 56 \FiveFlowerPetal (P) . . . . . 56 \FiveStar (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \FiveStarCenterOpen (;) . . . 56 \FiveStarConvex (?) . . . . . . 56 92 \FiveStarLines (7) . . . . . . . 56 \FiveStarOpen (9) . . . . . . . . 56 \FiveStarOpenCircled (:) . . 56 \FiveStarOpenDotted (<) . . . 56 \FiveStarOutline (=) . . . . . 56 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy (>) . 56 \FiveStarShadow (@) . . . . . . 56 \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . . 52 \fixedddots ( . . .) . . . . . . . . . 44 \fixedvdots ( .. .) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 fixmath (package) . . . . . . . . . 79 \fj (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Flag (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \flap (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \flapr (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \flat ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 60 \Flatsteel (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 florin . . . . . . . see \textflorin flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Fog (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 font encodings . . . . . . . 7, 80, 82 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 document . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 limiting scope of . . . . . . . . 7 LY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 OT1 7, 9, 13, 72, 79, 80, 82 OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 T1 . . . . . . . . . . 7, 9, 13, 80 T4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13, 16 T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 TS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 fontdef.dtx (file) . . . . . . 69, 72 fontenc (package) . . . 7, 9, 13, 80 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 fonts, PostScript Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Symbol . . . . . . . . . . 36, 67 Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Zapf Chancery . . . . . . . . 48 Zapf Dingbats . . . . . 53, 55 \Football (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \forall (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Force (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Forward (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . . . . . . 61 \ForwardToIndex (¹) . . . . . 61 \FourAsterisk (1) . . . . . . . . 56 \FourClowerOpen (V) . . . . . . 56 \FourClowerSolid (W) . . . . . 56 \Fourier ( c) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \fourier ( c ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 Fourier transform (F) . . . . . see alphabets, math \FourStar (5) . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \FourStarOpen (6) . . . . . . . . 56 \fourth (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 fraktur . . . . see alphabets, math \frown (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \frownie (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Frowny (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \FS (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \FullFHBO (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \fullmoon (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \fullmoon (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \fullnote (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 G \G (Ÿa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 g (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \Game (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Game (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Gamma (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \gamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \gammaup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Ganz (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \GaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Gemini (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gemini (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 genealogical symbols . . . . . . . 60 \geneuro (AC) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \geneuronarrow (BC) . . . . . . . 18 \geneurowide (CC) . . . . . . . . . 18 gensymb (package) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 geometric shapes . . . . . . . 56–58 \geq (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \geq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \geqq (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \geqq (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \geqslant (>) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gets . . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gg (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ggcurly (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ggg (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ggg (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ggg (o vs. Ï) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg Gibbons, Jeremy . . . . . . . . . . 85 \gimel (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \girl (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \glotstop (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \glottal (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \gluon (QPPPPPPR) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \gnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gnapprox (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gneqq (³) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gnsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 graphics (package) . . . . . . . . . 69 graphicx (package) . . . . . . 17, 69 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \gravis (a`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 greater-than signs see inequalities Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 36 blackboard bold . . . . . . . 48 bold . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 upright . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Gregorio, Enrico . . . . . . . . . . 70 \GS (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \gtrapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtrapprox (') . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gtrdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtrdot (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gtreqless (½) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtreqless (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gtreqqless (¿) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtreqqless (T) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gtrless (») . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtrless (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \gtrsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gtrsim (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \guillemotleft («) . . . . . . 9, 81 \guillemotright (») . . . . . 9, 81 \guilsinglleft (‹) . . . . . . . . . 9 \guilsinglright (›) . . . . . . . . 9 \gvertneqq (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \gvertneqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 H \H (˝a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 h (esvect package option) . . . . 43 \h (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \HA (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 h´aˇcek . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \Hail (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Halb (˘“) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \HalfCircleLeft (s) . . . . . . . 57 \HalfCircleRight (r) . . . . . . 57 \HalfFilledHut (�) . . . . . . . 63 \halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \HalfSun (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Hamiltonian (H) . see alphabets, math \HandCuffLeft (�) . . . . . . . . 54 \HandCuffLeftUp (�) . . . . . . 54 93 \HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . . 54 \HandCuffRightUp (�) . . . . . 54 \HandLeft (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \HandLeftUp (�) . . . . . . . . . 54 \HandPencilLeft (�) . . . . . . 54 \HandRight (�) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \HandRightUp (�) . . . . . . . . 54 hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Handwash (Ü) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \HaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 harmony (package) . 60, 61, 83, 84 harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–34 \hash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 hash mark . . . . . . . . . . . . see \# \hat (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \hausaB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausab (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausaD (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausad (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausaK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausak (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \HB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \hbar (~) . . . . . . . . . 36, 37, 69 \HC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HCthousand (6) . . . . . . . . . 66 \HD (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hd (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hdual (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HE (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \He (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Heart (OE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 hearts (suit) . . . . . . . . . . 46, 59 \heartsuit (~) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 48 Helvetica (PostScript font) . . . 18 \HERMAPHRODITE (€) . . . . . . . 52 \Hermaphrodite (}) . . . . . . . 52 \hexagon (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Hexasteel (’) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \hexstar (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hf (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HG (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \HH (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hhundred (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HI (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hi (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hibl (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hibp (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hibs (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hibw (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 hieroglf (package) . . . 66, 83, 84 hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Hilbert space (H) see alphabets, math \hill (a{) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \HJ (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \hksqrt (p ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \HL (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hl (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HM (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hman (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hmillion (7) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hms (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HN (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hn (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HO (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Ho (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . . . 1, 82 \holter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 holtpolt (package) . . . . . . 44, 83 \hom (hom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Hone (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \hookb (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookd (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookd (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookg (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookh ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookheng (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hookleftarrow ( -) . . . . . . 32 \hookrevepsilon (�) . . . . . . . 12 \hookrightarrow (,!) . . . . . 32 Horn, Berthold . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \HP (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hp (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hplural (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HQ (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hquery (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HR (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HS (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hscribe (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hslash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \hslash (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Hsv (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HT (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HT (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Ht (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hten (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hthousand (4) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Htongue (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Hungarian umlaut . . see accents \Hut (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \HV (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hv (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \hv (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Hvbar (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HW (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HX (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HXthousand (5) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hy (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 hyphen, discretionary . . . . . . . 82 \HZ (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Hz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 I \i (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ibar (i¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 80 \IceMountain (�) . . . . . . . . . 63 \iddots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 45, 72 \idotsint (R··· R) . . . . . . . . 23 \idotsint (') . . . . . . . . . 25 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow ifsym (package) 49, 57, 62, 63, 68, 83, 84 \iiiint (RRRR) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \iiiint (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \iiiint (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iiint (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \iiint (RRR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \iiint (#) . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25 \iiint (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iint (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \iint (RR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \iint (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25 \iint (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Im (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \im (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \imath (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 40 94 \impliedby . see \Longleftarrow \implies . see \Longrightarrow and \vdash impulse train . . . . . . . . . see sha \in (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \in (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 inches . . . . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl independence probabilistic . . . . . . . . . . 71 statistical . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 stochastic . . . . . . see \bot \independent (?) . . . . . . . . . 71 \Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 inequalities . . . . . . . . . 8, 30, 31 inexact differential . . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 information symbols . . . . . . . 58 informator symbols . . . . . . . . 64 \infty (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \infty (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \inipartvoice (a –ˇ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \inipartvoiceless (a –° ) . . . . . 15 \injlim (inj lim) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \inplus (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \int (³) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \int (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \int (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 integers (Z) . see alphabets, math integrals . . . . . . . . . . 23–26, 71 integrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . 23 \intercal (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \interleave (9) . . . . . . . . . . 21 intersection . . . . . . . . . see \cap \Interval (™) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \inva (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invamp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \invdiameter (�) . . . . . . . . . 60 \inve (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \InversTransformHoriz (�) 29 \InversTransformVert (�) . . 29 \invf (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invglotstop (d) . . . . . . . . . 12 \invh (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invlegr (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invm (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invneg (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \invr (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invscr (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invscripta (�) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invv (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invw (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invy (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \iota (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \iotaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ipagamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \IroningI (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \IroningII (°) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \IroningIII (±) . . . . . . . . . 62 \Irritant (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \ismodeledby (=|) . . . . . . . . . 69 ISO character entities . . . . . . 82 isoent (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 J \j (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \JackStar (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \JackStarBold (3) . . . . . . . . 56 Jewish star . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 56 \jmath (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 40 \Joch (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Join (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 27 \joinrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Jupiter (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Jupiter (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \jupiter (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 K \k ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \kappa (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \kappaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ker (ker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Keyboard (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 king . . . . . . . . see chess symbols knight . . . . . . . see chess symbols Knuth, Donald E. . . . . 7, 80, 85 symbols by . . . . . . . . 58, 61 \Kr ( l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \kreuz (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \kside (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Kutline (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 L \L ( L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \l ( l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \labdentalnas (4) . . . . . . . . 12 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . . 58 Lagrangian (L) . . see alphabets, math \Lambda (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \lambda (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \lambdabar (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \lambdaslash (n) . . . . . . . . . 46 \lambdaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Lamport, Leslie . . . . . . . . 82, 85 \land . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \landdownint (%) . . . . . . . . . 26 \landupint (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Langle (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \lAngle (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \langle (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 38 \Laplace ( s c) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \laplace ( c s) . . . . . . . . . . 29 Laplace transform (L) . . . . . see alphabets, math Laplacian (�) . . . . . see \Delta Laplacian (r2) . . . . see \nabla \largepencil (W) . . . . . . . . 54 \larrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . . 52 LATEX . . . . . . . . 1, 7, 23, 35, 38, 42, 44, 46, 53, 64, 67, 69, 70, 72–74, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 85 LATEX2" 1, 7, 8, 18–20, 26, 29, 32, 41, 44, 46, 48, 62, 67–69, 71, 72, 76, 77, 79–82, 85 latexsym (package) 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 67, 83, 84 \latfric (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 80, 82 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Lbag (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lbag (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lbbbrack (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Lbrack ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \lBrack ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 LCD digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \lCeil (dd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lceil (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ldotp (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \ldots (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ({) . . . . . . . . . 27, 32 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . see \textleaf \left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 \LEFTarrow (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Leftarrow (() . . . . . . . 20, 32 \leftarrow (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \leftarrowtail (�) . . . . . . . 32 \leftarrowtriangle (^) . . . 33 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . . . 34 \LEFTCIRCLE (G) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \LEFTcircle (G#) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Leftcircle (I) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \leftharpoondown (â) . . . . . 34 \leftharpoondown ()) . . . . . 32 \leftharpoonup (à) . . . . . . . 34 \leftharpoonup (() . . . . . . . 32 \leftleftarrows (Ð) . . . . . . 33 \leftleftarrows (�) . . . . . . 32 \leftleftharpoons (Ø) . . . . 34 \leftmoon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \leftmoon ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \leftpointright (R) . . . . . 54 95 \Leftrightarrow (,) . . . . . . 32 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . . . . . 33 \leftrightarrow ($) . . . . . . 32 \leftrightarroweq (-) . . . . . 33 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . . 33 \leftrightarrows (�) . . . . . 32 \leftrightarrowtriangle (]) 33 \leftrightharpoon (à) . . . . 34 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . . 34 \leftrightharpoons (�) . . . 33 \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . . 43 \leftrightsquigarrow (ú) 33 \leftrightsquigarrow (!) . 32 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . . 53 \leftslice (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . . . . 33 \leftsquigarrow (f) . . . . . . 33 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \leftthreetimes ($) . . . . . . 46 \leftthreetimes (h) . . . . . . 21 \leftthumbsdown (D) . . . . . 54 \leftthumbsup (U) . . . . . . . 54 \lefttorightarrow (ü) . . . . 33 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . . 52 \leftturn (") . . . . . . . . . . . 60 legal symbols . . . . . . . . 8, 18, 81 \legm (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \legr (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \length (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Leo (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \leo (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \leq (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \leq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \leqq (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \leqq (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \leqslant (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 less-than signs . . see inequalities \lessapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lessapprox (/) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lessdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lessdot (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lesseqgtr (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lesseqqgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lessgtr (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lessgtr (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lesssim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lesssim (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Letter (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Letter (B vs. 􀀀) . . . . . . . . 68 \Letter (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 letter-like symbols . . . . . . 36, 37 letters . . . . . . . . . . see alphabets barred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 non-ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 variant Latin . . . . . . . . . 36 \LF ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \lfilet (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lFloor (bb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lfloor (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lg (lg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \lgroup (8: ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \LHD (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \lhd (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \lhdbend (~) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \Libra (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \libra (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \lightbulb (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 77 lightbulb.map (file) . . . . . . . 83 lightbulb.mf (file) . . 74–76, 83 lightbulb.sty (file) . . . . . . . 77 lightbulb10.2602gf (file) . . . 76 lightbulb10.dvi (file) . . . . . 76 lightbulb10.mf (file) 74–76, 83 lightbulb10.tfm (file) . . . . . 77 \Lightning (E vs. �) . . . . . . 68 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Lightning (�) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \lightning ( vs. �) . . . . . . . 68 \lightning (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \lim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 \liminf (lim inf) . . . . . . . 35, 78 limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . . . 35, 78 linear implication see \multimap \Lineload (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 linguistic symbols . . . . . . 10–13 \lJoin (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \ll (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ll (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \llap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \llbracket (~) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \llceil (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \llcorner (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \llcorner (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \llcurly (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Lleftarrow (W) . . . . . . . . . 32 \llfloor (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lll (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lll (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lll (n vs. Î) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \llless . . . . . . . . . . . see \lll \llparenthesis (L) . . . . . . . . 37 \lmoustache (8; ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \lnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lnapprox (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lneq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lneqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lnsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 local ring (O) see alphabets, math \log (log) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 log-like symbols . . . . . . . . 35, 78 logical operators and . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . . . . see \neg and \sim or . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \logof (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 lollipop . . . . . . . . see \multimap long division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 longdiv (package) . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Longleftarrow ((=) . . . . . . 32 \longleftarrow ( −) . . . . . . 32 \Longleftrightarrow (()) 32, 62 \longleftrightarrow ( !) . 32 \Longmapsfrom ((=\) . . . . . . . 33 \longmapsfrom ( −[) . . . . . . . 33 \Longmapsto (�=)) . . . . . . . . 33 \longmapsto (7−!) . . . . . . . . 32 \LongPulseHigh (&) . . . . . . 49 \LongPulseLow (') . . . . . . 49 \Longrightarrow (=)) . . . . . 32 \longrightarrow (−!) . . . . . 32 \looparrowdownleft (î) . . . 33 \looparrowdownright (ï) . . . 33 \looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . . . 33 \looparrowleft (") . . . . . . . 32 \looparrowright (í) . . . . . . 33 \looparrowright (#) . . . . . . 32 \Loosebearing ($) . . . . . . . . 52 \lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \LowerDiamond (o) . . . . . . . . 57 lowering . . . see \textlowering \lozenge (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \lrcorner ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lrcorner (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lrJoin . . . . . . . . . . see \Join \lrtimes (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Lsh (è) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Lsh (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Lsteel (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \ltimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ltimes (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ltriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Luecking, Dan . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \lVert (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lvertneqq (´) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lvertneqq (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \lz (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 M \M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 96 \M (¯ ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \m (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \ma (ׯ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 macron . . . . . . . . . . see accents \macron (a¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \MALE (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Male (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \male (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \maltese (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \manboldkidney (�) . . . . . . . . 61 \manconcentriccircles ($) . 61 \manconcentricdiamond (%) . 61 \mancone (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \mancube (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \manerrarrow (y) . . . . . . . . 61 \manfilledquartercircle (!) 61 manfnt (package) . . 58, 61, 83, 84 \manhpennib (�) . . . . . . . . . . 61 \manimpossiblecube (�) . . . . 61 \mankidney (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \manlhpenkidney (�) . . . . . . . 61 \manpenkidney (�) . . . . . . . . 61 \manquadrifolium (&) . . . . . 61 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . . 61 \manrotatedquadrifolium (') 61 \manrotatedquartercircle (") 61 \manstar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \mantiltpennib (�) . . . . . . . 61 \mantriangledown (7) . . . . . . 61 \mantriangleright (x) . . . . . 61 \mantriangleup (6) . . . . . . . 61 \manvpennib (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \Mappedfromchar (�) . . . . . . . . 34 \mappedfromchar (􀀀) . . . . . . . . 34 \Mapsfrom ((\) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \mapsfrom ( [) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . . 34 \Mapsfromchar (\) . . . . . . . . . 34 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . . . . 34 \mapsfromchar ([) . . . . . . . . . 34 \Mapsto (�)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \mapsto (7!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Mapstochar (ú) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Mapstochar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \markera (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \markerb (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 married . . . . . see \textmarried \Mars (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Mars (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \mars (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . 62 marvosym (package) 18, 45, 50–53, 58, 61, 62, 68 matbbol (package) . . . . . . . . . 48 \mate (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 material biconditional . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material conditional . . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material equivalence . . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material implication . . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . 48 math-text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 mathabx (package) . . . 22, 24, 26, 28–31, 33, 34, 37–40, 43, 45, 46, 50, 58, 67, 68, 83, 86 \mathaccent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 mathbbol (package) . . . . . . . . 48 \mathbf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \mathbold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 mathcal (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . . . 70, 71 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . . 45 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . 20 mathdots (package) 44, 45, 72, 83, 84 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathellipsis (. . .) . . . . . . . 20 mathematical symbols . . . 20–48 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \mathpalette . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mathparagraph (¶) . . . . . . . 20 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 77 \mathring (°) . . . . . . . . . 40, 41 \mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 mathrsfs (package) . . . . . . 48, 83 mathscr (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mathsection (§) . . . . . . . . . 20 \mathsterling (£) . . . . . . 20, 37 \mathunderscore ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \max (max) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \DH \maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \Mb (˘¯´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mb (˘¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Mbb (˘¯ ˘¯ ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mBb (˘¯ ˘¯ ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mbB (˘¯ ˘¯ ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mbb (˘¯ ˘¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 mbboard (package) . . . . . . 48, 83 \mbbx (˘¯ ˘¯¯ ˘¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 72 \measuredangle (>) . . . . . . . 46 \measuredangle (]) . . . . . . . 46 mechanical scaling . . . . . . 74, 77 \medbullet (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \medcirc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Mercury (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Mercury (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \mercury (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \merge (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 METAFONT . . . . . . . . 48, 74–77 METAFONTbook symbols . . . . 61 metre (package) 16, 40, 64, 83, 84 metre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 metrical symbols . . . . . . . . . . 64 \mho (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 micro . . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \micro (μ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . . 80 \mid (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \min (min) . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 minus . . . . . . . . see \textminus \minuso ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 minutes, angular . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols 46, 58–66 “Missing $ inserted” . . . . . 20 \Mmappedfromchar (�) . . . . . . . 34 \mmappedfromchar (�) . . . . . . . 34 \Mmapstochar (�) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \mmapstochar (�) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . . . 26, 69 moduli space see alphabets, math monetary symbols . . . 17, 18, 48 \moo (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Moon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Moon (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \moreroom (U) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 97 \Mountain (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 mouse . . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (») . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \moverlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \mp (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \mu (μ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \multimap (() . . . . . . . . 26, 27 \multimapboth (�) . . . . . . . 27 \multimapbothvert (•) . . . . . 27 \multimapdot (�) . . . . . . . . . 27 \multimapdotboth (�) . . . . . 27 \multimapdotbothA (�) . . . . 27 \multimapdotbothAvert (˜) . . 27 \multimapdotbothB (�) . . . . 27 \multimapdotbothBvert (—) . . 27 \multimapdotbothvert (–) . . . 27 \multimapdotinv (�) . . . . . . 27 \multimapinv (�) . . . . . . . . . 27 multiple accents per character 72 \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 musical symbols . . 19, 46, 60, 61 musixtex (package) . . . . . . 60, 61 \muup (μ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \MVAt (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVThree (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \MVZero (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 N \nabla (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \NAK (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \napprox (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \napproxeq (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nasymp (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 nath (package) . . . . . . 38–40, 83 \natural (\) . . . . . . . . . . 46, 60 natural numbers (N) . . . . . . see alphabets, math navigation symbols . . . . . . . . 61 \nbacksim (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nbacksimeq (+) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nBumpeq ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nbumpeq (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ncong (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ncong (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . . 28 \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . . 28 \nDashV (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nDashv (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ndashV (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ndashv (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ndashVv (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neq \Nearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nearrow (%) . . . . . . 32, 71, 72 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 negation . . . . see \neg and \sim \Neptune (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \neptune ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \neq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \neq (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . . 31 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . . . . . 31 \nequiv (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \neswarrow (%.) . . . . . . . 71, 72 \Neutral ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \newmoon (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \newtie (�a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nexists (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \nexists (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \NG () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ng (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ngeq (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ngeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ngeqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngeqslant (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngg (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngtr (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ngtr (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ngtrapprox (#) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngtrless (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ngtrsim (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ni (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \nialpha (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nibar . . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \NibLeft (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \NibRight (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 \NibSolidRight (�) . . . . . . . 54 nicefrac (package) . . . 47, 83, 84 \nichi ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niepsilon (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nigamma (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niiota ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nilambda (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niomega (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niphi (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niplus (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nisigma (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nitheta (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niupsilon (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nj (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nLeftarrow (:) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nleftarrow (8) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . . 33 \nLeftrightarrow (<) . . . . . 32 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . . 33 \nleftrightarrow (=) . . 20, 32 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nleq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \nleqq (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nleqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nleqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nless (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nless (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nlessapprox (È) . . . . . . . . . 31 \nlessapprox (") . . . . . . . . . 30 \nlessgtr (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nll (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nmid (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nnearrow (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwarrow (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \NoBleech (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . . 62 nointegrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . . 62 non-commutative division . . . 44 norm . . see \lVert and \rVert \NoSun (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 not equal (?= vs. ?=) . . . . . . . . 28 \notasymp (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \notbackslash ( \−) . . . . . . . . 51 \notbot (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \notdivides (�) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \notequiv (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \notin (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \notin (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \notni (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \notowner (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \notowns . . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \notslash ( /−) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \nottop (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \NoTumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \novelty (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \nparallel (,) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nprec (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 98 \nprecapprox (È) . . . . . . . . . 28 \nprecapprox (7) . . . . . . . . . 28 \npreccurlyeq (¦) . . . . . . . . 28 \npreccurlyeq ($) . . . . . . . . 28 \npreceq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \npreceq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \npreceqq (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nprecsim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nprecsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nRightarrow (÷) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nRightarrow (;) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nrightarrow (9) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nshortmid (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nshortparallel (/) . . . . . . . 27 \nsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsim (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nsimeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsimeq (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsqSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsubset (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsqsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsubseteq (@) . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsqsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsupset (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsqsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsqsupseteq (A) . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . 30 \nSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nSubset (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsubseteq (*) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsubseteqq (") . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsucc (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsucc (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nsuccapprox (É) . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsuccapprox (8) . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsucccurlyeq (§) . . . . . . . . 28 \nsucccurlyeq (%) . . . . . . . . 28 \nsucceq («) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsucceq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nsucceqq (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsuccsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nsuccsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nSupset (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsupseteq (+) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \nsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nsupseteqq (#) . . . . . . . . . . 29 ntheorem (package) . . . . . . . . 46 \nthickapprox (5) . . . . . . . . 28 \ntriangleleft (š) . . . . . . . 31 \ntriangleleft (6) . . . . . . . 31 \ntrianglelefteq (ž) . . . . . 31 \ntrianglelefteq (5) . . . . . 31 \ntrianglelefteqslant (R) . 31 \ntriangleright (›) . . . . . . 31 \ntriangleright (7) . . . . . . 31 \ntrianglerighteq (Ÿ) . . . . . 31 \ntrianglerighteq (4) . . . . . 31 \ntrianglerighteqslant (S) 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow (h) . . . . 28 \ntwoheadrightarrow (g) . . . 28 \nu (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 null set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 number . . . . . . see \textnumero number sets see alphabets, math numbers . . . . . . . . . . . see digits \nuup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \nvargeq («) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvarleq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvarparallel (�) . . . . . . . . 28 \nvarparallelinv (�) . . . . . . 28 \nVDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nVDash (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nVdash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nVdash (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nvDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nvDash (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nvdash (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \nvdash (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \nVvash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Nwarrow (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nwarrow (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nwarrow (-) . . . . . . . . . 32, 71 \nwsearrow (-&) . . . . . . . . . . 71 O \O (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \o (ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 o (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \obar (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Obelus* (·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \obelus* (·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \oblong (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \obot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \obslash (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ocircle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . . 22 \octagon (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \od (a ° ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \odiv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \odot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \odot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \odplus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \OE (OE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \oe (oe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . . 18 \offinterlineskip . . . . . . . . 70 ogonek . . . . . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan (=) . . . . . . . . 21 \ohill ( {a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ohm . . . . . . . . . . . see \textohm \ohm (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Ohne (/a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \OHORN (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ohorn (ì) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \oiiint ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oiiintclockwise (L) . . . . . 25 \oiiintctrclockwise (D) . . 25 \oiint (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \oiint (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25 \oiint (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \oiintclockwise (H) . . . . . . 25 \oiintctrclockwise (@) . . . 25 \oint (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \oint (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ointclockwise (�) . . . . . . . 25 \ointclockwise (ı) . . . . . . . . 26 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . 25 \ointctrclockwise (�) . . . . . 26 old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \oldstylenums . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \olessthan (<) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Omega ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \omega (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \omegaup (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ominus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \onlymove (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \oo (��) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \oo (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \open (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \openJoin ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \openo (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \openo (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \openo (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \opentimes (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 operators binary . . . . . . . . . . . 20–22 logical . see logical operators set . . . . . . see set operators \oplus (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \oplus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 67 \opposbishops (o) . . . . . . . . 64 \opposition (W) . . . . . . . . . 50 optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 options . . . . see package options or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 99 \OrnamentDiamondSolid (q) . 59 orthogonal to . . . . . . . see \bot \oslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \oslash (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \otimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \otimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \otop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \otriangleup (o) . . . . . . . . . 22 ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \ovee (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \overarc (a_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \overbrace (hkikj) . . . . . . . . 43 \overbrace (z}|{) . . . . . . . . . 41 \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \overbridge ( ” a) . . . . . . . . . . 15 \overgroup (hkj) . . . . . . . . . 43 \overleftarrow ( −) . . . . . . . 41 \overleftrightarrow ( !) . . 42 \overline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 20, 41 \overparenthesis (z{) . . . . . 73 \Overrightarrow (=)) . . . . . . 41 overrightarrow (package) . . 41, 83 \overrightarrow (−!) . . . . . . 41 \overring (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ovoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \owedge (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ni \owns (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ownsbar (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 P \P (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 81 \p (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \p@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 package options a (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . . . 48 b (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 c (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 d (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 e (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 f (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 g (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 h (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 integrals (wasysym) . . . . . 23 mathcal (euscript) . . . . . . 48 mathscr (euscript) . . . . . . 48 nointegrals (wasysym) . . . 23 sans (dsfont) . . . . . . . . . . 48 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . . 36 packages accents . . . . . . . . 73, 83, 84 amsbsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 amsfonts 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 48 amsmath . . . . . . . 7, 35, 78 amssymb 7, 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 48, 83, 84, 86 amstext . . . . . . . . . . 70, 71 arcs . . . . . . . . . . 16, 83, 84 ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 83 ascii . . . . . . . . . . 51, 80, 83 bbding 53–57, 59, 68, 83, 84 bbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 bbold . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 bm . . . . . . . . . . 79, 83, 84 braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 calrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 cclicenses . . . . . . 18, 83, 84 chemarrow . . . . . 34, 43, 83 chemarr . . . . . . . 42, 83, 84 dblaccnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 dictsym . . . . . . . 66, 83, 84 dingbat . . 54, 58, 68, 83, 84 dsfont . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 empheq . . . . . . . 42, 83, 84 esint . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 83 esvect . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 83 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 eurosym . . . . . . . 18, 83, 84 euscript . . . . . . . 48, 83, 84 extarrows . . . . . . 44, 83, 84 extraipa . . . . . . . . . . 15, 83 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 fixmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 fontenc . . . . . . 7, 9, 13, 80 gensymb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 graphicx . . . . . . . . . . 17, 69 harmony . . . . . 60, 61, 83, 84 hieroglf . . . . . . . 66, 83, 84 holtpolt . . . . . . . . . . 44, 83 ifsym 49, 57, 62, 63, 68, 83, 84 isoent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 latexsym . 20, 26, 29, 32, 46, 67, 83, 84 manfnt . . . . . . 58, 61, 83, 84 marvosym . 18, 45, 50–53, 58, 61, 62, 68 matbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 mathabx . . 22, 24, 26, 28–31, 33, 34, 37–40, 43, 45, 46, 50, 58, 67, 68, 83, 86 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . . 45 mathdots . 44, 45, 72, 83, 84 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 mbboard . . . . . . . . . . 48, 83 metre . . . . 16, 40, 64, 83, 84 musixtex . . . . . . . . . . 60, 61 nath . . . . . . . . . . 38–40, 83 nicefrac . . . . . . . 47, 83, 84 ntheorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 overrightarrow . . . . . . 41, 83 phaistos . . . . . . . 65, 83, 84 phonetic . . . . . 12, 16, 69, 83 pifont . 10, 53–56, 58, 59, 67, 83, 84 polynom . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 protosem . . . . . . 65, 83, 84 psnfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 pxfonts 20, 21, 25–30, 32–34, 36, 37, 46, 48, 67, 80 rotating . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 semtrans . . . . 13, 17, 83, 84 skak . . . . . . . . . . 64, 83, 84 skull . . . . . . . . . . 58, 83, 84 slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 stmaryrd . 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 37, 39, 68, 82–84 t4phonet . . . . 13, 16, 83, 84 t5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 textcomp 7, 8, 13, 17–19, 32, 40, 47, 49, 60, 67, 80, 82–84 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tipa 10, 11, 13–16, 69, 83, 84 tipx . . . . . . . . . . 11, 83, 84 trfsigns . . . . . . 29, 37, 41, 83 trsym . . . . . . . . . 29, 83, 84 txfonts 20, 21, 25–30, 32–34, 36, 37, 46, 48, 67, 69, 80, 83, 84 ulsy . . . . . . . . . . 22, 34, 83 underscore . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 undertilde . . . . . . 44, 83, 84 units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 universa . . . . . 58, 62, 83, 84 upgreek . . . . . . . 36, 83, 84 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 vntex . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 wasysym . . 12, 18–21, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 46, 49–52, 55, 56, 60, 68, 83, 84 wsuipa 12, 15, 17, 68, 69, 72, 73, 83, 84 yfonts . . . . . . . . 48, 83, 84 yhmath 41, 42, 44, 45, 72, 83 zapfchan . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 longdiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Pakin, Scott . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 82 \PaperLandscape (�) . . . . . . 63 \PaperPortrait (�) . . . . . . . 63 par . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \invamp paragraph mark . . . . . . . . see \P parallel . . see also \varparallel \parallel (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . . . 51 \partial (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \partial (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \partialslash (C) . . . . . . . . 37 100 parts per thousand . . . . . . . see \textperthousand \partvoice (–ˇa» ) . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \partvoiceless (–°a» ) . . . . . . . . 15 \passedpawn (r) . . . . . . . . . 64 pawn . . . . . . . see chess symbols \Peace (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \PencilLeft (�) . . . . . . . . . 54 \PencilLeftDown (�) . . . . . . 54 \PencilLeftUp (�) . . . . . . . . 54 \PencilRight (�) . . . . . . . . 54 \PencilRightDown (�) . . . . . 54 \PencilRightUp (�) . . . . . . . 54 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \pentagon (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 56 percent sign . . . . . . . . . . see \% \permil (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Perp (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \perp (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 71 \perthousand (‰) . . . . . . . . 49 \Pfund (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 phaistos (package) . . . 65, 83, 84 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 pharmaceutical prescription . see \textrecipe \PHarrow (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHbee (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHbeehive (X) . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHboomerang (R) . . . . . . . . 65 \PHbow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHbullLeg (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHcaptive (D) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHcarpentryPlane (S) . . . . 65 \PHcat (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHchild (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHclub (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHdolium (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHdove (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHeagle (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHflute (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHgaunlet (H) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHgrater (p) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHhelmet (G) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHhide (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHhorn (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Phi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \phi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \phiup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \PHlid (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHlily (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHmanacles (N) . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHmattock (O) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Phone (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \phone (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \PhoneHandset ( ) . . . . . . . . 59 phonetic (package) . 12, 16, 69, 83 phonetic symbols . . . . . . . 10–13 \photon (::::) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHpedestrian (A) . . . . . . . 65 \PHplaneTree (i) . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHplumedHead (B) . . . . . . 65 \PHram (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHrosette (l) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHsaw (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHshield (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHship (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHsmallAxe (r) . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHstrainer (q) . . . . . . . . 65 \PHtattooedHead (C) . . . . . 65 \PHtiara (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHtunny (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHvine (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHwavyBand (s) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \PHwoman (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Pi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \pi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 pifont (package) 10, 53–56, 58, 59, 67, 83, 84 pilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P pipe . . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pisces (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \pitchfork (&) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \pitchfork (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \piup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \planck (¯h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Plane (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 playing cards . . . . see card suits \Plus (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 plus-or-minus sign . . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen (() . . . . . . 54 \pluscirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \PlusOutline (&) . . . . . . . . . 54 plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 55 \PlusThinCenterOpen ()) . . . 54 \Pluto (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pluto (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \pm (¯˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \pmb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \pmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . . 58 \polishhook (~) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \polter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 polynom (package) . . . . . . . . . 41 polynomial division . . . . . . . . 41 PostScript fonts 18, 36, 48, 53, 55, 67, 77 \pounds (£) . . . . . . . . 8, 81, 82 power set (P) . . . see alphabets, math \Pp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \pp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \ppm (¯˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Ppp (˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \ppp (˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Pppp (˙˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \pppp (˙˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Ppppp (˙˙˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \ppppp (˙˙˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Pr (Pr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \prec (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \precapprox (w) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . . 28 \preccurlyeq (4) . . . . . . . . . 26 \precdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \preceq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \preceqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 101 \precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . 28 \precnapprox (�) . . . . . . . . . 27 \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \precneqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \precnsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \precsim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \precsim (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 prescription . . . see \textrecipe \prime (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 probabilistic independence . . . 71 \prod (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . . 35 pronunciation symbols . . . . . see phonetic symbols proof, end of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \propto (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \propto (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 proto-Semitic symbols . . . . . . 65 protosem (package) . . 65, 83, 84 \ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . . . 82 \ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Psi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \psi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \psiup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Pu (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 pulse diagram symbols . . . . . . 49 \PulseHigh ($) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \PulseLow (%) . . . . . . . . . . 49 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 10 \pwedge (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 pxfonts (package) . 20, 21, 25–30, 32–34, 36, 37, 46, 48, 67, 80 \Pxp (˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \pxp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Q Q.E.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \qside (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \Quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \quarternote (�) . . . . . . . . . . 60 quaternions (H) . see alphabets, math queen . . . . . . . see chess symbols \quotedblbase („) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \quotesinglbase (‚) . . . . . . . . 9 R \R (� ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \r (°a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \r (� ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Radiation (�) . . . . . . . . . . 63 radicals . . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . . 52 \Rain (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \RainCloud (�) . . . . . . . . . . 62 raising . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Rangle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \rAngle (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rangle (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 38 \rarrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 rational numbers (Q) . . . . . . see alphabets, math rationalized Planck constant . see \hbar \Rbag (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \rbag (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \rbbbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Rbrack (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \rBrack (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rc ( a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \rCeil (ee) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rceil (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Re (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 README (file) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 real numbers (R) . see alphabets, math recipe . . . . . . . see \textrecipe \recorder (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Rectangle (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \RectangleBold (v) . . . . . . . . 57 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 58 \RectangleThin (t) . . . . . . . . 57 \Rectpipe (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Rectsteel (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 registered trademark . . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . . . . . . 26 binary . . . . . . . . . . . 26–31 negated binary . . . . . 27, 28 triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . . . 34, 69 \relbar (−) . . . . . . . . . . 34, 69 \Respondens (�) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \respondens (�) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . . . 67 \restriction . . . . . . . . . . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (æ) . . . . . . . . . 33 retracting . see \textretracting return . . . . . . see carriage return \revD (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \revddots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \reve (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \reveject (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \revepsilon (�) . . . . . . . 12, 69 reverse solidus . . . . . . . . . . . see \textbackslash reversed symbols . . . . . . . . . . 69 \reversedvideodbend (􀀀) . . 58 \revglotstop (c) . . . . . . . . . 12 \Rewind (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \RewindToIndex (´) . . . . . . 61 \RewindToStart (μ) . . . . . . . 61 \rfilet (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rFloor (cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rfloor (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \rgroup (9; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \RHD (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \rhd (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \rho (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \rhoup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 \RIGHTarrow (�) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Rightarrow () vs. : vs. ñ) 68 \Rightarrow ()) . . . 20, 32, 62 \Rightarrow (:) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \rightarrow (Ñ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \rightarrow (!) . . . . . . . . . 32 \rightarrowtail (�) . . . . . . 32 \rightarrowtriangle (_) . . . 33 \rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . . . . 34 \RIGHTCIRCLE (H) . . . . . . . . . 60 \RIGHTcircle (H#) . . . . . . . . . 60 \Rightcircle (J) . . . . . . . . . 60 \RightDiamond (?) . . . . . . . . 57 \rightharpoondown (ã) . . . . 34 \rightharpoondown (+) . . . . 32 \rightharpoonup (á) . . . . . . 34 \rightharpoonup (*) . . . . . . 32 \rightleftarrows (Õ) . . . . . 33 \rightleftarrows (�) . . . . . 32 \rightleftharpoon (á) . . . . 34 \rightleftharpoons (é) . . . 34 \rightleftharpoons ( ) . . . 33 \rightleftharpoons (*)) . . . 32 \rightleftharpoonsfill . . . . 43 \rightmoon (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \rightmoon (%) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \rightpointleft (L) . . . . . 54 \rightpointright (N) . . . . 54 \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . . . . 33 \rightrightarrows (�) . . . . 32 \rightrightharpoons (Ù) . . . 34 \Rightscissors (Q) . . . . . . . 53 \rightslice (3) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \rightsquigarrow (ù) . . . . 33 \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 32 \rightt (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \rightthreetimes (%) . . . . . 46 \rightthreetimes (i) . . . . . 21 102 \rightthumbsdown (d) . . . . 54 \rightthumbsup (u) . . . . . . 54 \righttoleftarrow (ý) . . . . 33 \Righttorque (') . . . . . . . . . 52 \rightturn (!) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ring (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ring equal to . . . . . . see \circeq ring in equal to . . . . see \eqcirc \riota (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rip (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \risingdotseq (�) . . . . . . . . 28 \risingdotseq (:) . . . . . . . . 26 \rJoin (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \rlap . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 71, 72 \rmoustache (9: ) . . . . . . . . . 38 rook . . . . . . . . see chess symbols roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 69 rotated symbols . . . . . . . . 17, 69 rotating (package) . . . . . . . . . 18 \rotm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotOmega ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotvara (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \roty (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . . 52 \RoundedTsteel () . . . . . . . . 52 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . . 52 \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \rqm ( - I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \rrbracket (?) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rrceil (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \rrfloor (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Rrightarrow (V) . . . . . . . . . 33 \rrparenthesis (M) . . . . . . . . 37 \RS (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Rsh (é) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Rsh (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \rtimes (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \rtimes (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \rtriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \rVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rVert (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \rvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 S \S (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 81 safety-related symbols . . . . . . 52 \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . . 50 \sagittarius (c) . . . . . . . . . 50 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . . . 64 sans (dsfont package option) . . 48 \satellitedish (I) . . . . . . . 58 \Saturn (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Saturn (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \saturn (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \Sborder (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 scaling mechanical . . . . . . . . 74, 77 optical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \scd (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scg (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \schwa (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Schwartz distribution spaces . see alphabets, math \sci (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 scientific symbols . . . . . . . 49–52 \ScissorHollowLeft (�) . . . 53 \ScissorHollowRight (�) . . 53 \ScissorLeft (�) . . . . . . . . 53 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom (�) . . . . . . . . . 53 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop (�) . 53 \ScissorRight (�) . . . . . . . . 53 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . 53 \ScissorRightBrokenTop (�) 53 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \scn (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \scorpio (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \scr (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 script letters see alphabets, math \scripta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scriptg (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scriptscriptstyle . . . . 70, 71 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . . 70, 71 \scriptv (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scu (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scy (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 seagull . . . . . see \textseagull \Searrow (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \searrow (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \searrow (&) . . . . . . . . . 32, 71 \sec (sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Sech (ˇ“)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \second (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 seconds, angular . . . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 section mark . . . . . . . . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond (�) . . . 63 \see (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . . 49 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 semantic valuation . . . . . . . . see \llbracket/\rrbracket and \lbbbrack/\rbbbrack semidirect products . . 21, 22, 46 semitic transliteration . . . 13, 17 semtrans (package) . 13, 17, 83, 84 \SePa (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \seppawns (q) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \SerialInterface (Î) . . . . . 51 \SerialPort (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . 51 set operators intersection . . . . . see \cap union . . . . . . . . . . see \cup \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 sha (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67–69 \sharp (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 60 \Shilling (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \shortdownarrow (�) . . . . . . . 33 \ShortFifty (×) . . . . . . . . . 62 \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . . . 62 \shortleftarrow (􀀀) . . . . . . 33 \shortmid (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . . 62 \shortparallel (q) . . . . . . . . 26 \ShortPulseHigh (") . . . . . . 49 \ShortPulseLow (#) . . . . . . . 49 \shortrightarrow (�) . . . . . 33 \ShortSixty (Ö) . . . . . . . . . 62 \ShortThirty (Û) . . . . . . . . 62 \shortuparrow (�) . . . . . . . . 33 \showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \SI (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Sigma (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \sigma (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \sigmaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sim (�) . . . . . . . . . . 26, 70, 80 \simeq (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \SixFlowerAlternate (O) . . . 56 \SixFlowerAltPetal (U) . . . 56 \SixFlowerOpenCenter (M) . . 56 \SixFlowerPetalDotted (Q) . 56 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved (L) 56 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \SixStar (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \SixteenStarLight (K) . . . . 56 skak (package) . . . . . . 64, 83, 84 skull (package) . . . . . . 58, 83, 84 \skull (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \slashb (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \slashc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \slashd (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 slashed letters . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 slashed.sty (file) . . . . . . . . . 70 \slashu (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Sleet (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 103 \sliding (a¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \SmallCircle (E) . . . . . . . . . 57 \SmallCross (�) . . . . . . . . . 57 \SmallDiamondshape (F) . . . 57 \smallfrown (a) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \SmallHBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \SmallLowerDiamond (?) . . . 57 \smallpencil (P) . . . . . . . 54 \SmallRightDiamond (O) . . . 57 \smallsetminus (r) . . . . . . . 21 \smallsmile (`) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \SmallSquare (@) . . . . . . . . . 57 \SmallTriangleDown (C) . . . 57 \smalltriangledown (™) . . . . 22 \SmallTriangleLeft (B) . . . 57 \smalltriangleleft (š) . . . . 22 \SmallTriangleRight (D) . . . 57 \smalltriangleright (›) . . . 22 \SmallTriangleUp (A) . . . . . 57 \smalltriangleup (˜) . . . . . . 22 \SmallVBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \smile (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Smiley (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \smiley (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 smiley faces . . . . . . . . 51, 60, 62 \Snow (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \SnowCloud (�) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Snowflake (`) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \SnowflakeChevron (^) . . . . 56 \SnowflakeChevronBold (_) . 56 snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \SO (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \SOH (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 space thin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 space, visible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 spades (suit) . . . . . . . . . . 46, 59 \spadesuit (?) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Sparkle (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \SparkleBold (\) . . . . . . . . . 56 sparkles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 “special” characters . . . . . . . . . 8 \SpecialForty (Ú) . . . . . . . 62 \sphericalangle (?) . . . . . . 46 \sphericalangle (^) . . . . . . 46 \SpinDown (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \SpinUp ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \splitvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \splitvert (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \spreadlips (a˙) . . . . . . . . . . 15 \sqbullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqcap ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqcap (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqcapplus (}) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \sqcup (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqcup (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sqcupplus (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \sqdoublecap (^) . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqdoublecup (_) . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqiiint (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \sqiint (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \sqiint (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \sqint (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \sqint (›) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \sqrt (p ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 71 \sqSubset (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsubset (€) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsubset (@) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sqsubseteq („) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsubseteq (v) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sqsubseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsubsetneq (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsubsetneqq () . . . . . . . . 30 \sqSupset (•) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsupset () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsupset (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sqsupseteq (…) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsupseteq (w) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsupsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . . 30 \sqsupsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . 30 \Square (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Square (� vs. f vs. 0) . . . . 68 \Square (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Square (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \square (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \square (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 square root . . . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft (m) . . . . . . . . . 57 \SquareCastShadowTopRight (l) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Squaredot (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \Squarepipe (—) . . . . . . . . . . 52 squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 58 \SquareShadowA (􀀀) . . . . . . . 57 \SquareShadowB (�) . . . . . . . 57 \SquareShadowBottomRight (h) . . . . . . . . . 57 \SquareShadowC (�) . . . . . . . 57 \SquareShadowTopLeft (j) . . 57 \SquareShadowTopRight (i) . 57 \SquareSolid (g) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Squaresteel (“) . . . . . . . . . 52 \squarewithdots (B) . . . . . . 58 \squplus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ssearrow (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \sslash (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \sswarrow ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \stackrel . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 74 \star (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 73 Star of David . . . . . . . . . 55, 56 stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 55, 56 statistical independence . . . . . 71 sterling . . . . . . . . . . see \pounds stmaryrd (package) 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 37, 39, 68, 82–84 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \StopWatchEnd (˜) . . . . . . . . 63 \StopWatchStart (—) . . . . . . 63 \stress (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \strictfi (K) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \strictif (J) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \strictiff (L) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \StrokeFive (;) . . . . . . . . . 63 \StrokeFour (::) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \StrokeOne (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \StrokeThree (::) . . . . . . . . . 63 \StrokeTwo (:) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \STX (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \SUB (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \subcorner (a ^ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \subdoublebar (a ¯ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \subdoublevert (a "" ) . . . . . . . . 15 \sublptr (a ¡ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \subrptr (a ¿ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 subscripts new symbols used in . 70–71 \Subset (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Subset (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subset (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \subset (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subseteq („) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \subseteq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \subseteqq (j) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subsetneq (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \subsetneq (() . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subsetneqq () . . . . . . . . . . 30 \subsetneqq ($) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subsetplus (D) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \subsetpluseq (F) . . . . . . . . 29 subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 30 \succ (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \succapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \succapprox (v) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \succcurlyeq (¥) . . . . . . . . . 28 \succcurlyeq (<) . . . . . . . . . 26 \succdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 104 \succeq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \succeqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \succnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . . 28 \succnapprox (�) . . . . . . . . . 27 \succneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \succneqq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \succnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \succnsim (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \succsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \succsim (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 such that (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \sum (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Summit (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \SummitSign (�) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Sun (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Sun (À vs. � vs. @) . . . . . . 68 \Sun (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Sun (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \sun (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \SunCloud (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \SunshineOpenCircled (T) . . 59 \sup (sup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 superscripts new symbols used in . 70–71 supersets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 30 \Supset (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Supset (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supset () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \supset (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supseteq (…) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \supseteq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \supseteqq (k) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \supsetneq ()) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \supsetneqq (%) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supsetplus (E) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \supsetpluseq (G) . . . . . . . . 29 \surd (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \SurveySign (�) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Swarrow (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swarrow (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swarrow (.) . . . . . . 32, 71, 72 swung dash . . . . . . . . . see \sim \syl (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \syllabic (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Symbol (PostScript font) . 36, 67 symbols alpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 astrological . . . . . . . . . . 50 astronomical . . . . . . . . . 50 biological . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 body-text . . . . . . . . . . 8–19 bold . . . . . . . . . . . . 78–79 chess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 communication . . . . . . . . 51 computer hardware . . . . . 51 contradiction . . . . . . 20, 34 currency . . . . . . 17, 18, 48 dangerous bend . . . . . . . 58 definition . . . . . . . . . 20, 74 dictionary . . . . . 10–13, 66 dingbat . . . . . . . . . . 53–59 dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 engineering . . . . . . . 49, 52 genealogical . . . . . . . . . . 60 general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 information . . . . . . . . . . 58 informator . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Knuth’s . . . . . . . . . . 58, 61 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 legal . . . . . . . . . . 8, 18, 81 letter-like . . . . . . . . . 36, 37 linguistic . . . . . . . . . 10–13 log-like . . . . . . . . . . 35, 78 mathematical . . . . . . 20–48 METAFONTbook . . . . . . 61 metrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 miscellaneous . . . 46, 58–66 monetary . . . . . . 17, 18, 48 musical . . . . . 19, 46, 60, 61 navigation . . . . . . . . . . . 61 non-commutative division 44 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . 65 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 10–13 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . . 65 pulse diagram . . . . . . . . 49 relational . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 reversed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 rotated . . . . . . . . . . 17, 69 safety-related . . . . . . . . . 52 scientific . . . . . . . . . 49–52 subset and superset . 29, 30 technological . . . . . . 49–52 TEXbook . . . . . . . . . 58, 61 transliteration . . . . . . . . 13 upside-down . . . . 17, 69, 80 variable-sized . . . . . . 23–26 weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 zodiacal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 symbols.tex (file) . . . 67, 82, 83 SYMLIST (file) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \SYN (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 T \T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \T ( a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \T (

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \t ( �a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \t (

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 t4phonet (package) . 13, 16, 83, 84 t5 (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 tacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 36 \taild (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tailinvr (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \taill (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tailn (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tailr (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tails (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tailt (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \tailz (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Takt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \talloblong (8) . . . . . . . . . . 21 tally markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \tan (tan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \tanh (tanh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Tape ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \Taschenuhr (–) . . . . . . . . . 63 Tate-Shafarevich group . see sha \tau (� ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Taurus (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \taurus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \tauup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \tccentigrade (‰) . . . . . . . . 45 \tcmu (μ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \tcohm (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \tcpertenthousand (˜) . . . 45 \tcperthousand (‰) . . . . . . . 45 \td (a..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 technological symbols . . . 49–52 \Telefon (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Telephone (() . . . . . . . . . 63 \Tent (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Terminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \terminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Terminus* (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \terminus* (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \tesh (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 testfont.dvi (file) . . . . . . . . 76 testfont.tex (file) . . . . . 76, 77 TEX . . . 67, 69–74, 76–78, 80, 85 TEXbook, The . . . . . . 69–73, 77 symbols from . . . . . . 58, 61 \text . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 70–72 \textacutedbl (‚) . . . . . . . . 17 \textacutemacron (´¯a) . . . . . . 14 \textacutewedge (´ˇa) . . . . . . . 14 \textadvancing (affi) . . . . . . . . 14 \textaolig (") . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textasciiacute (´) . . . . 17, 81 \textasciibreve (€) . . . . . . . 17 \textasciicaron () . . . . . . . 17 \textasciicircum (ˆ) . . . . 8, 80 \textasciidieresis (¨) . 17, 81 \textasciigrave (`) . . . . . . . 17 \textasciimacron . . . . . . . . . 80 \textasciimacron (¯) . . 17, 81 105 \textasciitilde (˜) . . . . . 8, 80 \textasteriskcentered (*) 8, 19 \textbabygamma (È) . . . . . . . . 10 \textbackslash (\) . . . 8, 79, 80 \textbaht (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textbar (|) . . . . . . . . 8, 79, 80 \textbarb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbard (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbardbl (†) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textbardotlessj (é) . . . . . . 10 \textbarg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . . . . 10 \textbari (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarl (ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbaro (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . . 10 \textbaru (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbeltl (ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbenttailyogh (B) . . . . . 11 \textbeta (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbigcircle (O) . . . . . . . 19 \textbktailgamma (.) . . . . . . 11 \textblank ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textborn (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \textbottomtiebar (a<) . . . . . 14 \textbraceleft ({) . . . . . . . . . 8 \textbraceright (}) . . . . . . . . 8 \textbrevemacron (˘¯a) . . . . . . 14 \textbrokenbar (¦) . . . . . 19, 81 \textbullet (•) . . . . . . . . 8, 19 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . . . . 10 \textcelsius (‰) . . . . . . . . . 49 \textceltpal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . 17, 81 \textcentoldstyle (¢) . . . . . 17 \textchi (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcircled ( ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \textcircledP (­) . . . . . . . 18 \textcircumacute (Za) . . . . . . 14 \textcircumdot (ˆ˙a) . . . . . . . . 14 \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . . . . 10 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . . . . . . 10 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . . 10 \textcolonmonetary () . . . . 17 \textcommatailz (Þ) . . . . . . . 10 textcomp (package) . . . . 7, 8, 13, 17–19, 32, 40, 47, 49, 60, 67, 80, 82–84 \textcopyleft («) . . . . . . . 18 \textcopyright (©) . . 8, 18, 81 \textcorner (^) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrb (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrd (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrd (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textcrg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrh (è) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrh (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textcrinvglotstop (Û) . . . . 10 \textcrlambda (n) . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrtwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctc (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctd (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctdctzlig (cý) . . . . . . . 10 \textctesh (š) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctinvglotstop (D) . . . . 11 \textctj (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctjvar (2) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctn (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctstretchc (%) . . . . . . . 11 \textctstretchcvar (&) . . . . 11 \textctt (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcttctclig (tC) . . . . . . . 10 \textctturnt (@) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctyogh (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textctz (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcurrency (¤) . . . . . 17, 81 \textdagger (†) . . . . . . . . 8, 19 \textdaggerdbl (‡) . . . . . . 8, 19 \textdbend (?) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \textdblhyphen (-) . . . . . . . . 19 \textdblhyphenchar (?) . . . . . 19 \textdblig ()) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdctzlig (dý) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdegree (°) . . . . . . . 47, 81 \textdied (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \textdiscount (œ) . . . . . . . . 19 \textdiv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \textdivorced (c) . . . . . . . . 60 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . . 8, 17 \textdollaroldstyle ($) . . . 17 \textdong (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textdotacute (§a) . . . . . . . . 14 \textdotbreve (˙˘a) . . . . . . . . 14 \textdoublebaresh (S) . . . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipevar (H) . . 11 \textdoublebarslash (=/ ) . . . 11 \textdoublegrave (‚a) . . . . . . 14 \textdoublegrave (Ÿa) . . . . . . 16 \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . . . 11 \textdoublepipevar (G) . . . . 11 \textdoublevbaraccent (Ia) . . 14 \textdoublevbaraccent (¼a) . . 16 \textdoublevertline (S) . . . 11 \textdownarrow (_) . . . . . . . . 32 \textdownfullarrow (ˇ) . . . . 11 \textdownstep (T) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdyoghlig (Ã) . . . . . . . . 11 \textdzlig (dz) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texteightoldstyle (8) . . . . 19 \textellipsis (. . . ) . . . . . . . . 8 \textemdash (—) . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textendash (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textepsilon (E) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textepsilon (¢) . . . . . . . . . 13 \textesh (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textesh (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textestimated () . . . . . . . 19 \texteuro (€) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textexclamdown (¡) . . . . . . . . 8 \textfemale (7) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfishhookr (R) . . . . . . . . 11 \textfiveoldstyle (5) . . . . . 19 \textfjlig () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textflorin (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textfouroldstyle (4) . . . . . 19 \textfractionsolidus (⁄) . . . 47 \textfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \textfrbarn (5) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookd (’) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookdvar (() . . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookt (?) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrtailgamma (-) . . . . . . 11 \textg (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textgamma (G) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textglobfall (U) . . . . . . . . 11 \textglobrise (U) . . . . . . . . 11 \textglotstop (P) . . . . . . . . 10 \textglotstopvari (T) . . . . . 11 \textglotstopvarii (U) . . . . 11 \textglotstopvariii (V) . . . 11 \textgoth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \textgravecircum (Ža) . . . . . . 14 \textgravedbl (ƒ) . . . . . . . . 17 \textgravedot (ža) . . . . . . . . 14 \textgravemacron (`¯a) . . . . . . 14 \textgravemid (Za) . . . . . . . . 14 \textgreater (>) . . . . 8, 79, 80 \textgrgamma (,) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textguarani () . . . . . . . . . 17 \texthalflength (;) . . . . . . . 10 \texthardsign (z) . . . . . . . . 10 \textheng (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthmlig (4) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthooktop (#) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtb (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . . . . . 10 \texthtbardotlessjvar (3) . . 11 \texthtc (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtc (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtd (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtd (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtg (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texththeng (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtk (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtk (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtp (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtq (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtrtaild (c) . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtscg (É) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtt (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 106 \texthtt (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthvlig (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textifsym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \textinterrobang (”) . . . . . . 19 \textinterrobangdown (•) . . . 19 \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . . . . 10 \textinvomega (;) . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvsca (p) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvscr (K) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textinvscripta (!) . . . . . . . 11 \textinvsubbridge (a„) . . . . . 14 \textiota (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textiota (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textlambda (n) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlangle (<) . . . . . . . 40, 80 \textlbrackdbl ([) . . . . . . . . 40 \textleaf (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \textleftarrow (�) . . . . . . . 32 \textlengthmark (:) . . . . . . . 10 \textless (<) . . . . . . 8, 79, 80 \textlfishhookrlig (I) . . . . 11 \textlhdbend (~) . . . . . . . . 58 \textlhookfour (#) . . . . . . . . 11 \textlhookp (<) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlhookt (s) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlhti (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlhtlongi (e) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlhtlongy (u) . . . . . . . . 10 \textlira (’) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . . . . 47, 81 \textlonglegr (Ô) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlooptoprevesh (>) . . . . . 11 \textlowering (afl) . . . . . . . . 14 \textlptr (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlquill ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \textltailm (M) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textltailn (ñ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textltailn (©) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textltilde (ë) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlyoghlig (Ð) . . . . . . . . 10 \textmarried (m) . . . . . . . . . 60 \textmho (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \textmidacute (Ÿa) . . . . . . . . 14 \textminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \textmu (μ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 81 \textmusicalnote (n) . . . . . . 19 \textnaira () . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textnineoldstyle (9) . . . . . 19 \textnrleg (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textnumero (›) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textObardotlessj (Í) . . . . . 10 \textObullseye (9) . . . . . . . 11 \textohm (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \textOlyoghlig (­) . . . . . . . . 10 \textomega (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textonehalf (½) . . . . . . 47, 81 \textoneoldstyle . . . . . . . . . 19 \textoneoldstyle (1) . . . . . . 19 \textonequarter (¼) . . . . 47, 81 \textonesuperior (¹) . . . 47, 81 \textopenbullet (ž) . . . . . . . 19 \textopencorner (_) . . . . . . . 10 \textopeno (O) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textopeno (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textordfeminine (ª) . 8, 19, 81 \textordmasculine (º) 8, 19, 81 \textovercross (‰a) . . . . . . . . 14 \textoverw ( — a) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textpalhook (%) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textpalhooklong (ˆ) . . . . . . 11 \textpalhookvar (˜) . . . . . . . 11 \textparagraph (¶) . . . . . 8, 19 \textperiodcentered (·) 8, 19, 81 \textpertenthousand (˜) . . 19 \textperthousand (‰) . . . . . 19 \textpeso (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textpilcrow (™) . . . . . . . . . 19 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textpipevar (F) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . . . . 47, 81 \textpmhg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \textpolhook (a˛) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textprimstress (") . . . . . . . 11 \textproto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \textqplig (=) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textquestiondown (¿) . . . . . . 8 \textquotedbl (") . . . . . . 9, 79 \textquotedblleft (“) . . . . . . 8 \textquotedblright (”) . . . . . 8 \textquoteleft (‘) . . . . . . . . . 8 \textquoteright (’) . . . . . . . . 8 \textquotesingle (') . . . . . . 19 \textquotestraightbase ( ) . 19 \textquotestraightdblbase (�) . . . . . . . . . 19 \textraiseglotstop (¼) . . . . 11 \textraisevibyi (g) . . . . . . . 11 \textraising (afi) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textramshorns (7) . . . . . . . . 11 \textrangle (>) . . . . . . . 40, 80 \textrbrackdbl (]) . . . . . . . . 40 \textrecipe (“) . . . . . . . 19, 69 \textrectangle (¨) . . . . . . . . 11 \textreferencemark (¸) . 19, 20 \textregistered (®) . 8, 18, 81 \textretracting (affl) . . . . . . . 14 \textretractingvar (°) . . . . 11 \textrevapostrophe (\) . . . . . 11 \textreve (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrevepsilon (3) . . . . 11, 69 \textreversedvideodbend (􀀀) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \textrevglotstop (Q) . . . . . . 11 \textrevscl (v) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrevscr (z) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrevyogh (z) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrhooka ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrhooke (*) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrhookepsilon (+) . . . . . 11 \textrhookopeno (:) . . . . . . . 11 \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) . . 11 \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . . . . . 11 \textrhoticity (~) . . . . . . . . 11 \textrightarrow (�) . . . . . . 32 \textringmacron (°¯a) . . . . . . . 14 \textroundcap (“a) . . . . . . . . 14 \textrptr (¿) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrquill (¡) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \textrtaild (ã) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtaild (ð) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textrtailhth (/) . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtaill (í) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtailn (ï) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrtailr (ó) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrtails (ù) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrtailt (») . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textrtailz (ü) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrthook ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrthooklong (´) . . . . . . . 11 \textsca (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscaolig (q) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscb (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscdelta (r) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsce (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscf (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscg (å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textsch (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textschwa (@) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textschwa (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textsci (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscj (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textsck (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscl (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscm (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscoelig (OE) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscomega (s) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscp (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscq (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscr (ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscripta (A) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscriptg (g) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscriptv (V) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscriptv (¬) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textscu (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textscy (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textseagull (a�) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textsecstress (?) . . . . . . . . 10 \textsection (§) . . . . . . . 8, 19 \textservicemark (Ÿ) . . . . . . 18 \textsevenoldstyle (7) . . . . 19 \textsixoldstyle (6) . . . . . . 19 107 \textsoftsign (ž) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textspleftarrow (˝) . . . . . . 11 \textsterling (£) . . . . . . 8, 17 \textstretchc (Â) . . . . . . . . 10 \textstretchcvar ($) . . . . . . 11 \textstyle . . . . . . . . 70, 71, 78 \textsubacute (a › ) . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubarch (a “ ) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubbar (a ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubbridge (a”) . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubcircum (a ˆ ) . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubdot (a ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubdoublearrow (˙) . . . 11 \textsubgrave (a ‹ ) . . . . . . . . 14 \textsublhalfring (a–) . . . . . 14 \textsubplus (aff) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textsubrhalfring (a») . . . . . 14 \textsubrightarrow (¯) . . . . 11 \textsubring (a ° ) . . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubsquare (a«) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubtilde (a ˜ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubumlaut (a ¨ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubw (a—) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubwedge (a ˇ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsuperimposetilde (a& ) . . 15 \textsuperscript . . . . . . . . . 16 \textsurd (») . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \textsyllabic (a " ) . . . . . . . . 15 \texttctclig (tC) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textteshlig (Ù) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textteshlig (œ) . . . . . . . . . 13 \texttheta (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textthorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textthornvari (P) . . . . . . . . 11 \textthornvarii (Q) . . . . . . . 11 \textthornvariii (R) . . . . . . 11 \textthornvariv (S) . . . . . . . 11 \textthreeoldstyle (3) . . . . 19 \textthreequarters (¾) . 47, 81 \textthreequartersemdash (�) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textthreesuperior (³) . 47, 81 \texttildedot (˜˙a) . . . . . . . . 15 \texttildelow (~) . . . . . 19, 80 \texttimes (×) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \texttoneletterstem (£) . . . . 10 \texttoptiebar (>a) . . . . . . . . 15 \texttrademark (™) . . . . . 8, 18 \texttslig (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturna (5) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturncelig (r) . . . . . . . 10 \textturnglotstop (E) . . . . . 11 \textturnh (4) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnk (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . . . . 10 \textturnm (W) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . . 11 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . . 11 \textturnsck (u) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnscripta (6) . . . . . . 11 \textturnscu ({) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnt (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnthree (C) . . . . . . . . 11 \textturntwo (A) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnv (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnw (û) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturny (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texttwelveudash (�) . . . . . . 19 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . . 19 \texttwooldstyle (2) . . . . . . 19 \texttwosuperior (²) . . . 47, 81 \textuncrfemale (8) . . . . . . . 11 \textunderscore ( ) . . . . . . . . 8 \textuparrow (^) . . . . . . . . . 32 \textupfullarrow (˘) . . . . . . 11 \textupsilon (U) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textupstep (T) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textvbaraccent (œa) . . . . . . . 15 \textvbaraccent (¿a) . . . . . . . 16 \textvertline (Š) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textvibyi (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textvibyy (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textvisiblespace ( ) . . . . . . 8 \textwon (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textwynn (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textyen (¥) . . . . . . . . . 17, 81 \textyogh (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textyogh (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textzerooldstyle (0) . . . . . 19 \TH (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \th (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Th`anh, H`an Th´ˆe . . . . . . . . . . 72 \therefore (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \therefore ()) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Thermo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Theta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \theta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \thetaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \thickapprox (t) . . . . . . . . . 26 \thicksim (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \thickvert (~) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 thin space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \ThinFog (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \third (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \Thorn (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \threesim (���) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tilde 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 40, 41, 44, 73, 80 extensible . . . . . . . . 41, 44 vertically centered . . . . . 80 \tilde (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 73 \tildel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \timelimit (T) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \times (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Times (PostScript font) . . . . . 18 timing (package) . . . . . . . . . . 49 tipa (package) . 10, 11, 13–16, 69, 83, 84 tipx (package) . . . . . . 11, 83, 84 \to . . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \top (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 70 \topbot (?>) . . . . . . . . . . 70, 72 \topdoteq (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 torus (T) . . see alphabets, math \ToTop (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 trademark . . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz (􀀀) . . . . . 29 transforms . . . . 29, 41, see also alphabets, math \TransformVert (�) . . . . . . . 29 transliteration semitic . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 17 transliteration symbols . . . . . 13 transversality . . see \pitchfork trfsigns (package) . . 29, 37, 41, 83 \triangle (4) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 triangle relations . . . . . . . . . . 31 \TriangleDown (3) . . . . . . . . 57 \TriangleDown (o vs. 3) . . . 68 \TriangleDown (o) . . . . . . . . 57 \triangledown (O) . . . . . . . . 46 \TriangleLeft (2) . . . . . . . . 57 \triangleleft (˜) . . . . . . . . 31 \triangleleft (/) . . . . . . . . 20 \trianglelefteq (œ) . . . . . . 31 \trianglelefteq (E) . . . . . . 31 \trianglelefteqslant (P) . . 31 \triangleq (,) . . . . . . . . 20, 31 \TriangleRight (4) . . . . . . . 57 \triangleright (™) . . . . . . . 31 \triangleright (.) . . . . . . . . 20 \trianglerighteq () . . . . . 31 \trianglerighteq (D) . . . . . 31 \trianglerighteqslant (Q) . 31 triangles . . . . . . . . . . 46, 57, 58 \TriangleUp (1) . . . . . . . . . 57 \TriangleUp (n vs. 1) . . . . . 68 \TriangleUp (n) . . . . . . . . . 57 \triple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 trsym (package) . . . . . 29, 83, 84 \tsbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \tsmb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \tsmm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Tsteel (oe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 108 \TTsteel (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 TUGboat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Tumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \TwelweStar (J) . . . . . . . . . 56 \twoheadleftarrow (�) . . . . 32 \twoheadrightarrow (�) . . . 32 \twonotes (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 txfonts (package) . 20, 21, 25–30, 32–34, 36, 37, 46, 48, 67, 69, 80, 83, 84 Type 1 (PostScript font) . . . . 77 U \U (a ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \U (¼a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \u (˘a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \UB (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ubar (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 ubulb.fd (file) . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \udesc (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \udot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \UHORN (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \uhorn (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ulcorner (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ulcorner (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 ulsy (package) . . . . . . 22, 34, 83 \Umd (ga) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 umlaut . . . . . . . . . . see accents \unclear (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \underaccent . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \underarc (a^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \underarch (a?) . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \underbrace (lomon) . . . . . . . 43 \underbrace (|{z}) . . . . . . . . 41 \underbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 \underbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 73 \underdots (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \undergroup (lon) . . . . . . . . 43 \underleftarrow ( −) . . . . . . 42 \underleftrightarrow ( !) . 42 \underline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \underparenthesis (|}) . . . . 73 \underrightarrow (−!) . . . . . 42 \underring (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 underscore . . . . . . . . . . . see \_ underscore (package) . . . . . . . . 8 undertilde (package) . . 44, 83, 84 \undertilde (|) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \underwedge (}) . . . . . . . . . . 17 union . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cup \unitedpawns (u) . . . . . . . . . 64 units (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 unity (1) . . . see alphabets, math universa (package) . 58, 62, 83, 84 \unlhd (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \unrhd (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \upalpha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \UParrow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Uparrow (*) . . . . . . . . . . 32, 38 \uparrow (") . . . . . . . . . . 32, 38 \upbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \upbeta (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upbracketfill . . . . . . . . . . 73 \upchi (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Updelta (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \updelta (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Updownarrow (m) . . . . . . 32, 38 \updownarrow (l) . . . . . . 32, 38 \updownarrows (Ö) . . . . . . . . 33 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . . . 34 \upepsilon (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upeta (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Upgamma (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upgamma (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 upgreek (package) . . . 36, 83, 84 \upharpoonleft (ä) . . . . . . . . 34 \upharpoonleft (�) . . . . . . . . 33 \upharpoonright (æ) . . . . . . . 34 \upharpoonright (�) . . . . . . . 33 \upiota (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upkappa (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Uplambda (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uplambda (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \uplus (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \uplus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \upmu (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upnu (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Upomega (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upomega (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upp (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Upphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upphi (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Uppi (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uppi (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Uppsi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uppsi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 upquote (package) . . . . . . . . . 80 \uprho (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 upright Greek letters . . . . . . . 36 upside-down symbols . . . . . . . 80 upside-down symbols . . . . 17, 69 \Upsigma (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upsigma (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Upsilon (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \upsilon (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \upsilonup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upt (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \uptau (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Uptheta (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uptheta (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \uptodownarrow (þ) . . . . . . . 33 \upuparrows (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upuparrows (�) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \upupharpoons (Ú) . . . . . . . . 34 \Upupsilon (U) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upupsilon (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvarepsilon (e) . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvarphi (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvarpi (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvarrho (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvarsigma (s) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upvartheta (J) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Upxi (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upxi (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \upzeta (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Uranus (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Uranus (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uranus (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \urcorner (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \urcorner (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 url (package) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \US (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \usepackage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \ut (a ˜ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \utilde (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 V \v (ˇa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \vara (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varangle (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \varbigcirc (,) . . . . . . . . . 21 \VarClock (›) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \varclubsuit (p) . . . . . . . . . 46 \varcurlyvee (�) . . . . . . . . . 21 \varcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \vardiamondsuit (q) . . . . . . . 46 \varEarth (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varepsilon (") . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varepsilonup (") . . . . . . . . . 36 \VarFlag (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varg (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varg (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \vargeq (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \varhash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \varheartsuit (r) . . . . . . . . 46 \varhexagon (9) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \varhexstar (B) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \vari (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 variable-sized symbols . . . 23–26 \VarIceMountain (�) . . . . . . 63 \varinjlim (lim −! ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varint (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \various (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \varkappa ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varleq (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \varliminf (lim) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varmathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 109 \VarMountain (�) . . . . . . . . . 63 \varnothing (?) . . . . . . . 20, 46 \varnotin (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \varnotowner (U) . . . . . . . . . 37 \varoast (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varobar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varobslash (�) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varocircle (�) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varodot (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varogreaterthan (5) . . . . . 21 \varoiiintclockwise (F) . . 25 \varoiiintctrclockwise (N) 25 \varoiint (!) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \varoiintclockwise (B) . . . 25 \varoiintctrclockwise (J) . 25 \varoint (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \varointclockwise (-) . . . . . 25 \varointclockwise (ff) . . . . . 26 \varointctrclockwise (+) . . 25 \varointctrclockwise (fl) . . . 26 \varolessthan (4) . . . . . . . . 21 \varomega (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varominus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varopeno (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varoplus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varoslash (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varotimes (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varovee (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varowedge (7) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \varparallelinv ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \varphi (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varphiup (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varpi ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varpiup ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varprod (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \varprojlim (lim

) . . . . . . . . . 35 \varpropto (_) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \varrho (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varrhoup (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varsigma (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varsigmaup (&) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varspadesuit (s) . . . . . . . . 46 \varsqsubsetneq (Š) . . . . . . 30 \varsqsubsetneqq (’) . . . . . 30 \varsqsupsetneq (‹) . . . . . . 30 \varsqsupsetneqq (“) . . . . . 30 \varstar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varsubsetneq (Š) . . . . . . . . 30 \varsubsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 \varsubsetneqq (’) . . . . . . . 30 \varsubsetneqq (&) . . . . . . . 29 \VarSummit (�) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \varsupsetneq (‹) . . . . . . . . 30 \varsupsetneq (!) . . . . . . . . 29 \varsupsetneqq (“) . . . . . . . 30 \varsupsetneqq (') . . . . . . . 29 \VarTaschenuhr (”) . . . . . . . 63 \vartheta (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \varthetaup (#) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \vartimes (") . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \vartriangle (M) . . . . . . . . . 46 \vartriangleleft (˜) . . . . . 31 \vartriangleleft (C) . . . . . 31 \vartriangleright (™) . . . . . 31 \vartriangleright (B) . . . . . 31 \varv (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \varw (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \vary (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \VBar (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \VDash (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Vdash (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \vDash (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \vDash (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \vdash (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \vdots ( .. .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \vec (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \Vectorarrow (p) . . . . . . . . . . 45 \Vectorarrowhigh (P) . . . . . . . 45 \vee (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \vee (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \veebar (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \veebar (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \veedoublebar ([) . . . . . . . . 22 \Venus (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Venus (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \venus (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \vernal (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Vert (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 \vert (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 39 \VHF (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Vier (ˇ“) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Village (�� �) . . . . . . . . . 63 \vin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 vinculum . . . . . . . see \overline \ViPa (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Virgo (å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \virgo (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \VM (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 vntex (package) . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 \vod (v ° ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \voicedh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \vppm (¯˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \vpppm (¯˙˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \VT (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \vv ( #») . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \VvDash (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Vvdash (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Vvdash (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \vvvert (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 W \WashCotton (‰) . . . . . . . . . 62 \WashSynthetics (Š) . . . . . 62 \WashWool (‹) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \wasylozenge (5) . . . . . . . . . 60 \wasypropto (�) . . . . . . . . . . 27 wasysym (package) 12, 18–21, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 46, 49–52, 55, 56, 60, 68, 83, 84 \wasytherefore (�) . . . . . . . 46 \wbetter (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \wdecisive (h) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \weakpt (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \WeakRain (�) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \WeakRainCloud (�) . . . . . . . 62 weather symbols . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Wecker (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \wedge (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \wedge (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Weierstrass } function . . see \wp \Wheelchair (w) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \whistle (a T ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \widearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \widebar (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \widecheck (q) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \widehat (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \wideparen (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \wideparen (ó) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \widering (°ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \widering ( °ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \widetilde (e) . . . . . . . . 41, 44 \widetriangle (æ) . . . . . . . . 42 \wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \with (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \withattack (A) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \withidea (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \withinit (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \without (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Womanface (þ) . . . . . . . . . . 62 won . . . . . . . . . . . see \textwon \wp (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \wr (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 wreath product . . . . . . . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . . . . . . . . . 58 wsuipa (package) . 12, 15, 17, 68, 69, 72, 73, 83, 84 \wupperhand (c) . . . . . . . . . . 64 X \x (˙˙ ˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \XBox (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Xdvi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \xhookleftarrow ( −-) . . . . . . 42 110 \xhookrightarrow (,−!) . . . . . 42 \Xi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \xi (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \xiup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \xLeftarrow ((=) . . . . . . . . . 42 \xleftarrow ( −) . . . . . . . . . 42 \xleftharpoondown ()−) . . . . 42 \xleftharpoonup ((−) . . . . . . 42 \xLeftrightarrow (()) . . . . 44 \xLeftrightarrow (()) . . . . 42 \xleftrightarrow ( !) . . . . 44 \xleftrightarrow ( !) . . . . 42 \xleftrightharpoons (−(+−) . . 42 \xlongequal (===) . . . . . . . . . 44 \xLongleftarrow ((=) . . . . . 44 \xlongleftarrow ( −) . . . . . 44 \xLongleftrightarrow ((=)) 44 \xlongleftrightarrow ( −!) 44 \xLongrightarrow (=)) . . . . 44 \xlongrightarrow (−!) . . . . 44 \xmapsto (7−!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \xRightarrow (=)) . . . . . . . . 42 \xrightarrow (−!) . . . . . . . . 42 \xrightharpoondown (−+) . . . 42 \xrightharpoonup (−*) . . . . . 42 \xrightleftharpoons (−*)−) . . 42 \xrightleftharpoons (−*)−) . . 42 Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 58 \XSolid (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \XSolidBold ($) . . . . . . . . . 55 \XSolidBrush (%) . . . . . . . . . 55 XY-pic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Y \Ydown (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 yen . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textyen yfonts (package) . . . . . 48, 83, 84 yhmath (package) . 41, 42, 44, 45, 72, 83 \Yinyang (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Yleft (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \yogh (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \yogh (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Yright (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Yup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Z Zapf Chancery (PostScript font) 48 Zapf Dingbats (PostScript font) 53, 55 zapfchan (package) . . . . . . . . . 83 \Zborder (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 \zeta (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \zetaup (�) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Zodiac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 zodiacal symbols . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ztransf ( s . c) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ztransf ( c. s) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \zugzwang (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Zwdr (ˇ“*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \ZwPa (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 111