# Category:Linear Water-Wave Theory

## Introduction

Linear water waves are small amplitude waves for which we can linearise the equations of motion (Linear and Second-Order Wave Theory). It is also standard to consider the problem when waves of a single frequency are incident so that only a single frequency needs to be considered, leading to the Frequency Domain Problem. The linear theory is applicable until the wave steepness becomes sufficiently large that non-linear effects become important.

## Equations in the Frequency Domain

We assume small amplitude so that we can linearise all the equations (see Linear and Second-Order Wave Theory). We also assume that Frequency Domain Problem with frequency [math]\displaystyle{ \omega }[/math] and we assume that all variables are proportional to [math]\displaystyle{ \exp(-\mathrm{i}\omega t)\, }[/math] The water motion is represented by a velocity potential which is denoted by [math]\displaystyle{ \phi\, }[/math] so that

[math]\displaystyle{ \Phi(\mathbf{x},t) = \mathrm{Re} \left\{\phi(\mathbf{x},\omega)e^{-\mathrm{i} \omega t}\right\}. }[/math]

The coordinate system is the standard Cartesian coordinate system with the [math]\displaystyle{ z- }[/math]axis pointing vertically up. The water surface is at [math]\displaystyle{ z=0 }[/math] and the region of interest is [math]\displaystyle{ -h\lt z\lt 0 }[/math]. There is a body which occupies the region [math]\displaystyle{ \Omega }[/math] and we denote the wetted surface of the body by [math]\displaystyle{ \partial\Omega }[/math] We denote [math]\displaystyle{ \mathbf{r}=(x,y) }[/math] as the horizontal coordinate in two or three dimensions respectively and the Cartesian system we denote by [math]\displaystyle{ \mathbf{x} }[/math]. We assume that the bottom surface is of constant depth at [math]\displaystyle{ z=-h }[/math]. Variable Bottom Topography can also easily be included but we do not consider this here.

The equations are the following

(note that the last expression can be obtained from combining the expressions:

where [math]\displaystyle{ \alpha = \omega^2/g \, }[/math])

where [math]\displaystyle{ \mathcal{L} }[/math] is a linear operator which relates the normal and potential on the body surface through the physics of the body.

The simplest case is for a fixed body where the operator is [math]\displaystyle{ L=0 }[/math] but more complicated conditions are possible.

The equation is subject to some radiation conditions at infinity. We assume the following. [math]\displaystyle{ \phi^{\mathrm{I}}\, }[/math] is a plane wave travelling in the [math]\displaystyle{ x }[/math] direction,

where [math]\displaystyle{ A }[/math] is the wave amplitude (in potential) [math]\displaystyle{ \mathrm{i} k }[/math] is the positive imaginary solution of the Dispersion Relation for a Free Surface (note we are assuming that the time dependence is of the form [math]\displaystyle{ \exp(-\mathrm{i}\omega t) }[/math]) and

In two-dimensions the Sommerfeld Radiation Condition is

where [math]\displaystyle{ \phi^{\mathrm{{I}}} }[/math] is the incident potential.

In three-dimensions the Sommerfeld Radiation Condition is

where [math]\displaystyle{ \phi^{\mathrm{{I}}} }[/math] is the incident potential.

## Subcategories

This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total.

## Pages in category "Linear Water-Wave Theory"

The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total.